EINSTEIN WAS WRONG

(SEE THE $10,000 CHALLENGE)
THE AETHER EXISTS

I have found that in general, the academic community will not entertain criticism of Einstein or the possibility of an Aether and neither will journals publish papers on the subject, hence the reasons for this website, which I hope will initiate more debate on the subject.

I welcome comments and questions and will reply if time allows.

Email :
rfn@btconnect.com

I also give lectures on my theories if conditions are acceptable.

All four theories (ATVE September 2000, ATG June 2004, Nature of Time Oct 2004, and ATCE December 1999) are the original work of R.F.Norgan who edits and owns this web site.

THE TWINS PARADOX

THE EXPERIMENT WHICH PROVES EINSTEIN WRONG
Everyone knows the original Twins paradox (TP) experiment where one identical twin B leaves Earth on a rocket ship and eventually returns after many
years to his stay-at-home twin A on Earth.
Now Special Relativity states that time dilation is observed in a different
inertial reference frame (IRF) to that of the observer. Simply, if A and B
are two identical clocks moving at constant velocity relative to each other
then clock A will observe clock B to run relatively slow. However it is also
true that clock B will observe clock A to run relatively slow. Hence both
clocks paradoxically observe each other to run slow. This absurdity, called
the Dingle paradox, is the crux of the Twins Paradox.
The Dingle paradox suffers from the practical difficulty that at least one
reading of each clock by the other must be made over a separation distance.
This causes difficulties as to whether the observed effects are real, observational or what. The Twins Paradox experiment overcomes this problem as it
consists of a double out and return Dingle experiment with the benefit that
it eliminates observations over distance to give an undisputable real result.
Accelerations
In the standard version of the TP the travelling twin accelerates three times,
once away from Earth then at the point of velocity reversal and finally before
touch down on Earth.
Now it is the case that relative velocity for the purposes of SR must be
constant, ie both the observer and the observed clock must inhabit IRFs.
Hence SR cannot apply to accelerating objects and so the accelerations in
the standard TP are an embarrassment to SR. However the accelerations can
be removed by modifying the experiment to employ three clocks instead of
two such that clock B makes the outward journey and passes its reading on to
clock C which then makes the return journey to clock A. Nevertheless SR still
has difficulty with the prediction of clock B, C of clock A at the final reading.
The SR Prediction of the TP
Special relativity and alternative theories agree on the prediction of clock
A on the final reading of the other clock(s) and this prediction agrees with
observation. Different theories disagree in their prediction of the out and
return clock of the relative reading of A.
Although it is only strictly necessary to read and compare clocks at the final
co-incidence it is very instructive for the clocks to make continuous readings
of each other over the separation distance.
At the reversal point clock B has accumulated a certain count n. From the
point of view of B clock A will be reading (n − x) where the factor x is due
to SR predicted time dilation. As clock B covers the same distance back to
A at the same velocity V clock B will read 2n at the final co-incidence. From
1
the point of view of B clock A will then read (2n − 2x due to further time
dilation. In fact A reads (2n + 2x). Thus SR makes an incorrect prediction.
The Aether Theory of Velocity Effects (ATVE)
See the full paper on the ATVE.
The ATVE states that the velocity effects of length contraction, time dilation and mass increase apply only to matter systems and are real effects.
The Aether velocity effect factor is identical to the Lorenz factor except that
the relevant velocity is Aether velocity as opposed to relative velocity. An
observer sees the ratio of the real effect on the observed object to the real
effect on his own material units.
When the Aether velocity of the observer is a small fraction of c (the Aether
velocity of the solar system is believed to be 0.0012c) the difference in the
reading of two identical clocks of the duration between two events is given by:-
− Vd/2c2 − VeAdpA/c
2
(1)
where d is the distance moved by clock B through a reference IRF inhabited
by clock A and dpA is the current distance between the object and an observer in the ref. IRF but in-line with the direction of the Aether velocity of
the ref. IRF.
In the case of the Twins Paradox dpA is zero at the final reading.
In addition the ATVE describes an Aether communication effect (ACE) due
to the anisotropy of the speed of light over the separation distance which is
+VeAdpA/c
2
(see the ATVE paper).
Under all observations the real ratio effect and ACE combine to give:-
1/2c2
Z
f(V)δd (2)
Thus velocity V can be changing, i.e. the object clock can be accelerating to
any degree and direction over the course of the experiment.
Thus the ATVE can perfectly handle the original TP with accelerations.
The ATVE explanation
Where the observer (clock A) is in the reference IRF eqn 2 predicts his observation of clock B no matter that clock B moves and accelerates in any
fashion so long as the pattern is known. If clock A is also accelerating the
time dilation of clock A relative to the ref. IRF can also be calculated and
the difference in time dilation calculated for clocks A and B is the relative
time dilation between the two.
When the observation is reversed and clock B observes clock A the ACE of
clock B needs to be converted into ref. IRF velocities. ACE for clock B then
becomes:-
Vd/c
2 + VeAdpA/c
2
(see the ATVE paper) (3)
2
The combination of the real effect (eqn 1 and ACE (eqn. 3) then becomes
+V d/2c
2 which is the inverse of that observed from the reference IRF as
expected.
If clock B inhabits IRFs both in the outward and the return journey then
observations of clock A can be made directly from B in which case eqn. 1 is
employed. However the change of observation effect at the velocity reversal
creates a one off observation effect of 2V d/c2 which modifies observations on
the return journey. The final reading agrees with that of clock A.
The ATVE predictions agree with observations throughout the TP experiment for distance d inequations 1,2 and 3 can take any value.
Your comments are welcome. rfn@btconnect.com
If you agree with the ATVE explanation of the TP please link your
website to this one
RELATIVITY IS A NONSENSE
3

AN AETHER THEORY OF VELOCITY EFFECTS

Classification no. 03.30.+p
by R F Norgan, 4 High St, Graveley, Nr. Hitchin, Herts.
Email: rfn@btconnect.com
ABSTRACT
The sole postulate of the ATVE is the substantial luminiferous Aether which
SR denies. The Lorenz Transforms are generated from the conclusions by J.
S. Bell who, using Maxwells equations, demonstrated that length contraction
and time dilation are real effects resulting from the movement of an atom
through the Aether. The ratio of the real effects upon two material bodies,
the observer and the observed object, together with a separate observation
effect are derived from the Lorenz Transforms. The combination of the real
and the observation effect gives a velocity effect function which is identical to
that of SR for non-accelerating bodies. However the ATVE has the benefit of
intrinsically coping with the acceleration of matter bodies. The ATVE is not
subject to the paradoxes to which SR is considered subject. The restoration
of the Aether as an acceptable hypothesis for Space is the major benefit of
the theory.
1
THE GENERAL HYPOTHESIS OF THE AETHER
For the purposes of this paper Space is postulated to be a physical substance,
different to any other, which occupies every point in Space. The Aether is
therefore the substance (and the only substance) which determines volume
and hence distance. The Aether is an absolute frame of reference albeit nonEuclidean in nature. The electric, magnetic and gravitational potentials are
supported at each and every point by the Aether substance. These potentials are propagated through the Aether at the local speed of light, which is
determined by the Aether substance at that locality. It follows that matter
moves through the Aether at absolute velocities. Relative velocities are only
relevant in collisions between bodies and in observations between bodies. Absolute velocities create absolute, ie real, velocity effects in matter bodies.
The Aether is a general hypothesis which is not specific to the ATVE. It is
also the basis of many unrelated theories, eg Gravity, Inertia, Cosmic Expansion, the support and propagation of the electric and the magnetic potentials
etc.
Although the Aether is a non-Euclidean reference frame, for simplicity of
calculation the ATVE takes it to be Euclidean which is substantially true
where the gravitational field is weak. With this simplification the Aether
approximates to a Euclidean reference frame which is intrinsically inertial as
no more important body exists relative to which acceleration or rotation of
the Aether is meaningful.
THE WORK OF J. S. BELL [4]
From Maxwells equations Bell calculated the change in the electro-magnetic
fields surrounding the charge of a hydrogen atom nucleous as a function of
velocity. This work had already been previously carried out by O. Heaviside.
Bell does not specify to what that velocity is relative. However he equates his
matter contraction result to the Fitzgerald-Lorenz contraction effect (FLCE)
which implies that it is the Aether velocity. He then calculated the modification of the orbit of the electron in a hydrogen atom in response to the
changing fields. Bell found that the orbit was compressed in the direction of
velocity by the factor p
1 − V
2/c2
. As matter length is determined by the
shape of the outer electron orbits Bell came to the conclusion that all matter
contracted to the same degree. This effect had previously been suggested on
an empirical basis by G F Fitzgerald [1] and later by Lorenz and has since
been known as the FLCE. Bells work gives the neccessary scientific basis to
the empirical suggestion. This effect is given as:-
LIRF = L0/γe (1)
where γe = 1/
p
1 − V
2
e
/c2 and Ve is the Aether velocity.
γe is the Aether velocity effect function.
Bell also determined that the period of the orbit of the electron dilated according to the factor 1/
p
1 − V
2/c2
(the Larmor time dilation effect).
2
It is only a trivial extension to accept that time for matter systems in general is exampled by the time of the electron orbit. If the orbit period of
the electron is considered as a time unit then the orbit period of a moving
atom measured in the orbit periods of an atom stationary in the Aether will
measure greater than one.
Thus the general equation for time dilation is:-
t0 = tIRF γe (2)
where t and t0 are measures of time using a standard clock.
Length contraction and time dilation are therefore real effects. A real effect
is defined as that which occurs to an object irrespective of the presence or
otherwise of any other object. Real effects can only be observed directly in
the absence of observation effects.
The Kennedy-Thorndike experiment [5] is often cited as an experiment
which disproves the FLCE. However this is not the case when the time dilation of the frequency source is taken in to account, as it must be. Then a
null prediction is achieved to agree with observation.
THE RATIO OF REAL VELOCITY EFFECTS BETWEEN MATTER BODIES
Each matter body moving through the Aether experiences real velocity effects as a function of its own Aether velocity as described by eqns 1 and 2.
The Aether velocity effect on mass is derived later. Thus two objects, A
and B moving at Aether velocities VA and VB experience, for example, time
dilations of
tA = t0γA and tB = t0γB
Assuming that A and B are identical clocks, then when one clock observes the
time keeping of the other clock, ignoring for the moment observational effects,
the observing clock will see the ratio of their two time units. Therefore, as
seen from A of B using As clock as standard we have
tA/tB =
s
1 − V
2
eB/c2
1 − V
2
eA/c2
(3)
The reciprocal observation of B by A naturally gives the inverse of the above.
The above ratio is equally but inversely applicable to matter length.
It therefore, at first sight, seems impossible for an observer in one IRF to
predict their observations of an object in a second IRF from the above equations as they contain two unknown velocities VeA and VeB .
THE LORENZ TRANSFORMATIONS
The Lorenz transforms are derived in a similar although partly different manner to that employed by Einstein in his 1905 paper. Thus their entire derivation is not fully explained in this paper in those areas where it duplicates the
previous work of Einstein.
3
The dimensions of Space are not affected by the movement of matter through
it. But the measure of Space is naturally affected by a change in the measuring units of time and distance, ie clocks and rods, employed by a moving
observer. Hence the dimensions of Space are peculiar to each observer. Space
as viewed by an observer may be considered as a pseudo-Aether whose dimensions are related to the true Aether by a function of the Aether velocity
of the observer. This pseudo-Aether or inertial reference frame is purely an
effect of the circumstances of the observer.
As an example an observer at rest in the Aether will observe the contraction
of bodies at rest in an IRF which is moving through the Aether but he will
not observe a contraction of the Space that separates these bodies. However
those bodies within that IRF will observe the dimension of these Space separations differently to the Aether observer.
Now consider that the Aether is frame K in the construction employed by
Einstein and a reference IRF is frame k where frame k is moving at velocity
V along the x axis of K. The x axes of both frames are in line with each
other.
The co-ordinates of K are given by x, y, z, and t while the co-ordinates of k
are given by ξ, η, ζ and τ .
Distance is measured by an observer in each frame by means of his standard
distance measuring rod. The relative length of these two rods in the x direction is given by eqn.1 where L0 is matter length in frame K. Thus distances
in the ξ direction in k, either determined by matter as with rods or measured
by matter rods, will appear contracted when viewed in frame K. A point in
k will also be related to K by x − vt. Thus the relationship between the x
dimensions of frames K and k are given as:-
ξ = γe(x − vt) (4)
Axes y and z are not affected as the measuring rods are not contracted in
those directions. Thus:-
η = y (5)
and
ζ = z (6)
Identical to Einsteins construction a light pulse is emmitted from the origin
of k, which is coincident with the origin of K, at time t0. This pulse reflects
from an object at postion x
0 at time tr and returns to the origin at time t2
where (t2 − t0) = tx. The velocity of the ray in the outward direction is c − v
and in the return direction it is c + v. Thus period tx is given by 2x

2
e
/c
or, taking into account the FLCE in the x direction where ξ = γex
0
, then
tx = 2ξγe/c. But 2ξ/c = τx, thus:-
tx = γeτx
4
It is easily shown that the above eqn. is equally true for the y and z axes thus:-
t = γeτ
Which is identical to eqn.2 where t = t0.
The assumed reflection of the ray occurs at time tm where tm = (t0 + t2)/2
but actually occurs at time tr. Thus:-
tm − tr = x
0
v/(c
2 − v
2
)
Putting x
0 = x − vt we have
tr = γ
2
e
(tm − xv/c2
)
and putting tr = γeτr gives:-
τr = γ(tm − vx/c2
) (7)
Thus the Lorenz transformation equations are generated from the basis of
the Aether but with the crucial difference that they are not reciprocal. They
also only relate Aether dimensions to those measured in reference IRFs.
J S Bell also arrived at the Aether derived Lorenz Transforms although via
a different route.
The uniformity of IRFs to an observer
It was shown by Einstein that after a transformation of the fundamental
electro-magnetic equations by the Lorenz Transforms that Maxwells equations describing electro-magnetism are invariant between IRFs. The kinematic laws are equally shown to be invariant between IRFs. It is therefore
a general result of the Lorenz Transforms that the Laws of Physics are invariant between IRFs. Thus a principle, the Principle of Invariance, can be
constructed which states:-
A frame in uniform motion relative to the Aether cannot be distinguished
from the Aether by any local physical experiment whatever.
It also follows from the Principle that any frame cannot be distinguished
from any other.
This principle is very similar to the Principle of Special Relativity. The only
difference being that the Aether is considered a special or preferred frame
even though the specialty or preference of the Aether frame from an IRF is
not detectable.
Although local experiments cannot detect a difference, non-local experiments
are able to do so. For example the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
(CMBR) is deemed to issue from all directions of Space at equal intensities
and frequencies. However a dipole anisotropy is detected in the frequency
of the radiation which can be most simply explained as a Doppler effect due
5
to the velocity of the Earth relative to the source of the CMBR radiation.
This velocity is calculated to be approximately 360km/s. The question remains unanswered as to the exact source of the radiation but it is likely to
either have come either from the Aether itself, see the later chapter on Cosmic Expansion, or from material sources which effectively mark the position
of the Aether. Thus it is reasonable to consider the velocity of 360km/s
to be relative to the Aether, for what else could it be relative to. The detection of our own Aether velocity requires that a physical Aether must exist.
VELOCITY ADDITION FORMULAE
For simplicity the co-ordinate symbols for the two frames K and k are now
given as:-
For frame K; x, y, z and t. For frame k; x
0
, y0
, z0 and t
0
. The velocity of an
object viewed from K is u and the same object viewed from k is u
0
. The
relative velocity between the two frames is v which lies in the x direction.
Velocity transformations are deduced as standard from the Lorenz transformations. They are:-
ux =
v + u
0
x
(1 + vu0
x
/c2
)
, uy, uz =
u
0
y
, u0
z
γv(1 + vu0
x
/c2
)
Putting u
2 = u
2
x + u
2
y + u
2
z
and u
2 = u
02
x + u
02
y + u
02
z
gives:-
s
1 − u
02
x
/c2
1 − u
2/c2

(1 + u
0
x
v/c2
)
p
1 − v
2/c2
(8)
These equations enable the equation for mass as a function of Aether velocity
to be determined on a consideration of the conservation of momentum using
identical logic to that of Einstein in his original paper. Thus:-
m = m0γe (9)
Frame K is the Aether and frame k is now called the reference frame A. The
observed object B may be accelerating as it does not need to inhabit an IRF.
Thus u = VeB, u0 = V, and v = VeA.
Eqn. 8 can be rewritten thus:-
s
1 − V
2
eB/c2
1 − V
2
eA/c2

p
1 − V
2/c2
(1 + VxVeA/c2
)
(10)
Thus eqn.3 can now be given as:-
tB/tA =
p
1 − V
2/c2
(1 + VxVeA/c2
)
(11)
The above function applies equally to matter length and mass as well as time.
For low values of VA ( which is applicable to the solar system) eqn. 11 can
be shown in a different form and becomes:-
6
tA/tB = 1 − V
2
/2c
2 − VAVx/c2
(12)
The measured time difference is (TA − TB) = TA[V
2/2c
2 + VAVx/c2
]
As d = TA/V and dx = TA/Vx we also have
(TA − TB) = dV/2c
2 + VAdx/c2
(13)
The velocity effect cannot yet be calculated as the function still involves an
unknown Aether velocity in the right-hand part of the function. This function, VAdx/c2
, is called the Matter Transport Effect. It is a function of the
instantaneous distance between B and A but in line with the Aether velocity
of the reference IRF A. In practice it is the difference in dx between two
observations which is of greater significance.
However if dx is zero, as it is at the final reading of the Twins Paradox class
of experiments, then a real prediction is produced directly from eqn.7.
The Matter Transport Effect can be seen to be the time taken for light to
traverse distance dx times the Aether velocity of the reference IRF. When a
clock is moved between two points, ie Slow Transportation, the difference in
traverse time from the expectation is the Matter Transport effect.
If two readings are taken of a clock over a period then the first reading of
this function is subtracted from the second reading. In that case the Matter
Transport Effect is a function of the difference in distance dx.
THE COMMUNICATION EFFECT (ACE)
The observation of real effects upon bodies by an observer body is dependant
on the process of observation over a separation distance and at a communication velocity which is ideally the speed of light. Allowance must be made
for the time delay for light to travel between the two bodies at the assumed
speed of light. However the time of reflection from the observed body is not
equal to tm = (τ0 + τ2)/2. The difference is given by eqn.7 in the form:-
τr − τm = −γevx/c2
(14)
From eqn.4 ξ = γex when t is zero. This assumption can be made as the
communication is not dependant on the relative velocity of the bodies involved but merely on the instantaneous separation distance at the point of
reflection. Thus the above equation becomes:-
τr − τm = tACE = −vξ/c2
(15)
Eqn. 15 is the Aether Communication effect for an observer in
frame k.
The sign of ACE depends upon whether the communication is reading or
setting the clock.
From now on the more usual co-ordinates of x, y, z and t are employed to
7
describe frame k, the refence IRF.
Now dx = TAVx and d = TAV .
Therefore
tACE = TAVxVA/c2
. (16)
The ratio of the observed time period T when reading the moving clock to
the observers clock reading (ignoring temporarily all other effects) is
TB
TA
= 1 + VxVA/c2
.
As the observer is unaware of ACE he must conclude that all differences in
the observed time period are due to a difference between the time units of
the two clocks. He therefore concludes that
tA
tB
= 1 + VxVA/c2
(17)
Where tA and tB are the time units of his own clock A and the observed clock
B.
ACE modifies all measurements of real effects made over non-zero distance.
A measure of the delay times must be undertaken for every interrogation of
the distant clock.
THE COMBINATION OF THE REAL AND COMMUNICATION
EFFECTS
The combination of the Real and the Communication effects are given in the
two forms.
Form 1
Equation 11 for the real effect is combined with eqn. 17, the communication
effect, to give simply
tB/tA =
p
1 − V2/c
2 (18)
Form 2
The Real Effect eqn.13 and the Aether Communication effect eqn. 15 are
combined thus:-
TA − TB = dV/2c
2 + VAdp/c2 − VAdp/c2 = dV/2c2
(19)
The Matter Transport Effect and ACE always exactly cancel each other under all conditions of observing a matter body.
Thus a totally real result always arises when an observed clock is
read irrespective of its location relative to the observer.
8
If the constant velocity V is replaced with a variable function of V then we
have
(TA − TB) = 1
2c
2
Z
f(V )δd (20)
Thus the observed clock may be accelerating to any degree, direction or duration within the period of the observation.
If the observer A is accelerating then its time dilation can be equally calculated, relative to a chosen IRF, over the same observation period and subtracted from that of clock B in order to obtain the difference.
Thus within the ATVE there is total freedom for either the observed or the observer clock to accelerate.
OBSERVATION OF THE REFERENCE FRAME FROM AN ACCELERATING BODY.
The ACE of the accelerating clock B is −TBVBVpB/c2
From eqn. 5 this can be converted to velocities through IRF A thus:-
tACE = TB(V
2 + VAVpA)/c2
which gives:-
tACE = dV 2
/c2 + dpAVA/c2
(21)
The combination of eqn.15 and eqn. 8 gives the observation of an accelerating clock B upon a clock in IRF A as:-
TA − TB = −dV 2
/2c
2
Being the observation of B upon A it is the inverse of what A sees of B,
which is to be expected.
The varying velocity of B in IRF A can be calculated from the measured
acceleration. For example if B moves in a circle where the instantaneous
velocity is always V then T V 2/c2 becomes T.acc.R/c2 where R is the radius
of the circle.
THE DINGLE PARADOX EXPLAINED
As relative velocity is identical for two bodies moving with respect to each
other the observed velocity effects are also identical as predicted both by the
ATVE and SR. If the two bodies are clocks observing time dilation in the
other they will therefore both observe the other clock to be running slow. In
reality it is not possible for two clocks to both run slow relative to each other.
Several SR explanations of this paradox have been submitted but none have
been judged to be satisfactory.
The ATVE explanation is more easily understood if the situation is simplified
somewhat.
Assume clock A and clock B have Aether velocities VA and VB respectively
9
and that the two velocities are in line with the two clocks also separated by
a certain distance along the same line. The two Aether velocities are both
small fractions of c such that powers of c above two can be ignored. These
simplifications do not substantially affect the argument.
The time dilation suffered by each clock causes the measure of the time between two events to be less than that measured by a clock stationary in the
Aether. The fractional diminution is given by V
2
A/2c
2 and V
2
B/2c
2
respectively
according to eqn.2. Each clock will observe the difference between these two
real effects in the absence of the observation effect ACE.
The observation effect ACE is given as VxVN /c2 where N is either A or B
according to the observer, where Vx = Vr = (VB − VA).
Thus the diminution observed as a fraction of a time period by clock A is:-
(TA − TB)/TA = [V
2
B − V
2
A − 2VrVA]/2c
2
For B as the observer the suffixes A and B are interchanged.
The above equation reduces to V
2
r
/2c
2
for both A and B as the observer as
expected.
The ratio of the real effects and the observation effect is given by:-
(VA + VB)/2VA
At the extremes if VA is zero then A observes only a real effect of clock B,
where-as clock B observes an observation effect which is twice the observed
real effect and of opposite sign. Thus velocity effect observations are a mix
of real and observational effects depending on the exact Aether velocities involved. If clock A observes a real effect greater than the observation effect
then clock B observes the opposite.
THE TWINS PARADOX
The essence of the twins paradox (TP) is that two identical clocks meet and
then take different routes through Space, one route being longer than the
other, to a second meeting. The two clocks then compare their measure of
the time period between the two meetings. Because one clock travels further
than the other it therefore does so at a higher average velocity which subjects
that clock to time dilation relative to the other clock. It is necessary that at
least one clock changes velocity during the experiment.
In the simplest version of the TP clock A moves at constant velocity. Clock
B leaves A after synchronisation, at a constant relative velocity V . At a
certain distance d clock B accelerates in the direction of A up to a constant
velocity V in the direction of A. Clocks A and B compare readings at their
final co-incidence over zero distance.
Both SR and the ATVE agree on the predictions of clock A of the reading of
clock B but they do not agree on the reading of clock A as seen by clock B.
With SR both A and B predict that the other clock will be relatively slow,
which is of course not possible. This prediction results from the fact that
10
velocity within SR is purely relative rather than absolute. Thus observations
between IRFs are equally reciprocal. In the ATVE velocities are absolute
and so absolute differences in time do occur.
According to the ATVE clock B will be slow relative to clock A by V d/c2
,
ignoring the period of acceleration where the relative velocity is less than V
for a short period. Clock B must recognise that it has accelerated in order to
make this prediction. The direction of clock B relative to a line between A
and B is not material as neither is the constancy of V through the reference
IRF. Eqn 13 calculates the total time dilation. If the observer A is also accelerating as is an observer on Earth then his time dilation can be calculated
separately by the same equation and the difference taken.
THE REASONS WHY SPECIAL RELATIVITY IS AN UNSATISFACTORY THEORY
Special relativity is based upon the Principle of Special relativity which
states:-
A frame in uniform translatory motion relative to an inertial frame cannot
be distinguished from that frame by any physical experiment whatsoever.
From this principle Einstein derived two postulates :-

  1. The speed of light (SOL) is a constant in all directions in all inertial reference frames and
  2. No one IRF is a more special than any other.
    Thus SR denies the existence of the Aether.
    Einstein also assumed that what we observe is the true and total picture of
    what is there.
    Thus if we always measure the speed of light to be a constant in all IRFs SR
    assumes that we are measuring the true SOL.
    SR predicts the velocity effects of length contraction, time dilation and mass
    increase as observed changes between the dimensions of IRFs and as a function of their relative velocity.
    Measuring the Speed of Light
    The normal method of measuring velocity is to time the passage of the object in question over a measured distance. A timer is started when the object
    crosses the start of the track and is stopped when it crosses the end. A difficulty arises in that that where-ever the timer is positioned it must be a
    distance from at least one end of the track with a resultant communication
    delay over that distance even at the speed of light. There is a simple method
    of communicating with the timer at the SOL. A beam splitter at the start
    of the track splits the incoming beam so that one half goes down the track
    and the other half is directed to start the timer. At the end of the track the
    beam is reflected from a mirror back to stop the timer.
    11
    It is obvious that where the track beam and the timer start beam run in
    parallel they will take identical times to move that distance under all circumstances and this tells us nothing of the speed of light. Parallel running
    is therefore eliminated by positioning the timer exactly at the beam-splitter.
    The inescapable result is that the timer is now measuring the out and return
    journey of the light beam rather than the intended one way journey.
    The conclusion being that it is not possible to measure the local one-way
    speed of light.
    Furthermore the track distance, being determined by a matter rod measuring
    unit is subject to the FLCE effect. The combination of a two way measure
    and the FLCE result in a constant measure of the SOL irrespective of the
    magnitude of its one way velocity.
    The movement of the measuring clock from one end of the measurement track
    to the other removes the need for communication to the clock. However, as
    has been seen, the movement of a clock generates an effect equal to that of a
    communication by light ray. An example of this type of measurement is the
    Ole Roemer measure of the SOL across the Earths orbit.
    Special relativity does not describe Space in a logical manner or as
    we observe it.
    The vector addition of photon and matter velocities
    According to SR the light from a star leaves at a velocity relative to the star
    of c. A rocket approaches the star at velocity V . According to the mathematics of the addition of vectors the starlight should strike the rocket at
    velocity c + V . However SR states that the strike velocity is c. In other
    words c+V = c. It should be noted that this is not a consequence of SR but
    the main postulate of the theory. Thus we are either required to accept that
    the foundation of our mathematics is wrong or we must accept that Space is
    constructed in such a way that it is impossible to envisage.
    In Aether theory the star and the rocket have Aether velocities of VeS and
    VeR respectively where the vector difference is the relative velocity V . The
    true one way velocity of light relative to the star and the rocket is the vector
    difference between the Aether velocity of each and the Aether propagation
    constant c. Thus the vectors of photon and matter velocities add in the normal manner albeit velocities measured by an observer are a function of his
    own Aether velocity according to the Addition of Velocities formulae.
    Inertial Reference Frames
    SR is restricted to predictions between IRFs as they are specified in the Principle of Special Relativity as an axiom of the theory as well as in the Lorenz
    Transforms. IRFs are co-ordinate frames of three distance dimensions and
    one time dimension which are neither accelerating nor rotating. The distance
    dimensions stretch to infinity.
    SR velocity effects relate to the dimensions of an IRF as observed from a different IRF. The dimensions of any matter inhabiting that IRF, i.e. stationary
    12
    with respect to that IRF, are necessarily determined by the dimensions of
    the IRF itself.
    It follows that accelerating matter cannot inhabit an IRF and therefore cannot be subject to the predictions of the SR. As all matter is accelerating to
    one degree or another it also follows that matter can never inhabit an IRF
    according to the requirements of SR and hence SR is not applicable to matter.
    Accelerations
    In order to overcome the above argument accelerating matter is deemed by
    the proponents of SR to inhabit a particular IRF for the infinitely short time
    dt before it moves into the next IRF. However the range of action within
    an IRF is limited to cdt which tends to zero distance. Thus an accelerating
    particle cannot observe or act upon any other particle beyond zero distance.
    Thus velocity effects should not be observed on the predictions of SR if either
    the observer or the observed object is accelerating.
    In the ATVE velocity effects are a function of velocity through the immediate
    Aether around and within the matter body at zero distance. Furthermore
    IRFs are not axioms of the ATVE. They merely act as a convenient datum.
    SR loses the many Aether based explanations of phenomena.
    SR does not have alternatives or has inferior explanations for the following
    examples:-
  3. Space volume
  4. Space distance
  5. Time
  6. Inertia
  7. The support of electric, magnetic and gravitational potentials in Space.
  8. The source of the determination of the propagation velocity, the speed of
    light.
  9. Action at a distance by accelerating fields.
  10. The operation of Gravity
  11. Cosmic expansion
  12. Cosmic acceleration (Dark Energy)
    The Paradoxes of SR
    It is impossible to know whether the SR predictions are real effects, ie whether
    they occur in an object irrespective of the presence of any other object, or
    whether they are observational effects which occur as the result of the observers situation, or indeed any combination of the two. As relative velocity
    is the same for either object A and B of the other it follows that A will see
    velocity effects of B equal to those which B sees of A. This equal reciprocal observation of SR leads to each of two identical clocks in different IRFs
    reading each other to be running relatively slow (the Dingle Paradox). If SR
    velocity effects are real this is impossible. However if SR velocity effects are
    totally observational then it would not be possible to observe real time dif13
    ferences at the second meeting of two identical having taken different length
    journeys from their first meeting at which they were zeroed. In fact real time
    differences are indeed observed. Also SR cannot provide an explanation as
    to how one clock observes the other to have run fast for SR can only predict
    that observed clocks run relatively slow.
    Conclusion
    In practice the predictions of the ATVE are identical to those of SR. Furthermore practitioners of SR do not concern themselves with applying the theory
    to accelerating bodies which are really the preserve of the ATVE. The major
    effect of the ATVE is to demonstrate that a workable velocity effects theory can be constructed from the hypothesis of the Aether. Consequently the
    Aether hypothesis of Space can once more become an acceptable explanation.
    REFERENCES
    [1] G. F. Fitzgerald,(1889), The Aether and the Earths Atmosphere, Science 13, 390.
    [2] A. A. Michelson and E. W. Morley (1887), On the Relative motion
    of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether, American Journal of Science 34,
    333-345.
    [3] H. A. Lorentz, De relatieve beweging von der aarde an der Aether,
    Koninklijke Akadamie van Wetenschappe te Amsterdam. Wis- en Natuurkundige Afdeeling. Verslagen der Zittingen, 1 (1892-93) 74 -79.
    [4] J S Bell (1976). How to teach special relativity, Progress in Scientific
    Culture 1
    [5] R. J. Kennedy and E.M.Thorndike (1932),Experimental Establishment
    of the Relativity of Time, Phys. Rev.42, 400-418.
    [6] A, Einstein (1905), Elektrodynamik bewegter Koerper, Annalen der
    Physik 17, 891-921.
    14

AN AETHER THEORY OF GRAVITY

By: R.F. Norgan (June 2004)
SUMMARY
The Aether Theory of Gravity (ATG) is based upon Space being a substantial
Aether which determines the local speed of light at all points, together with
certain elements of the General Theory of Relativity (GTR). The ATG is a
scalar theory where the gravitational potential is the difference between the
speed of light at an infinite distance from matter and the local speed of light.
The acceleration of light in a gravitational field is shown to be caused by
refraction due to the local gradient of the speed of light. The theory predicts
the bending of a transverse light ray, the non-Euclidean nature of Space, the
gravitational red-shift and the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, all in
agreement with observations.
The GTR, a competing theory, is based upon the Einstein (or Strong) Equivalence Principle (EEP) which is demonstrated to be false. The GTR is also
implausible as it requires one geometry of Space-Time to explain the paths
of photons and a second geometry to explain the paths of matter. The GTR
also possesses the weakness that although it predicts the paths of light and
matter it fails to explain how these particles are constrained to follow these
paths.
The ATG requires a hypothesis for the construction of fundamental mass
particles.
THE BASIS OF THE ATG
Although based upon the unsound hypothesis of Space-Time which in turn
rested upon the false principle, the EEP (examined later), the GTR predicted that Space was non-Euclidean in that the Space units of distance and
time were not constants. However the GTR predictions incorrectly predict
a variation in these units over direction. The ATG postulates the following
equations which are independent of direction.
dr = d
r
1 −
2m
r
(1)
and
tr = t
,r
1 −
2m
r
(2)
tr is the time to propagate e/m potentials across a Space distance unit dr. d
and t are the physical units of distance and time inherent in the Aether but
at an infinite distance from matter (r = ∞). dr and tr are the local units of
distance and time at distance r (the co-ordinate distance) from the centre of
1
a gravitating body.
The factor m is the gravitational radius of the body and equals GM/c2
. The
co-ordinate distance unit is a theoretical distance unit equal to d but applied
everywhere.
As the local speed of light cr is given by dr/tr it follows that
cr = dr/tr = d/t 
1 −
2m
r

∴ cr = c

1 −
2m
r

(3)
Consequently the speed of light is not a constant although the local speed
of light cr will everywhere equal 2.998 × 108m/s in terms of local units of
distance and time. Equations 1, 2 and 3 demonstrate that Space is nonEuclidean in nature.
A NOTE ON VARIOUS DISTANCE UNITS
Some possible distance units are:-

  1. Co-ordinate distance
  2. Space distance
  3. Photon or radar distance
  4. Mass distance
  5. Effective radius distance
  6. The Co-ordinate distance unit d equals the Space distance dr at r = ∞.
    It is a theoretical distance applicable everywhere in Space. However it
    may be the natural distance unit of a sub-Aether.
  7. The Space distance unit dr is the natural distance unit of the Aether.
    It varies in size relative to the co-ordinate distance d according to
    eqn. 1.
  8. The Photon or Radar distance is distance experienced by a photon (or
    indeed by matter). If between the two meetings of two photons one
    photon covers a known distance then the other photon is deemed to
    have covered the same distance.
    In practice an e/m pulse is emitted from one object and reflected back
    from a second object an unknown distance away. The interval between
    emission and return is timed and multiplied by the speed of light to
    give the unknown distance.
    2
  9. Mass distance is determined either directly or indirectly according to an
    arbitrary length of matter used as a standard unit. Mass distance varies
    as a function of its Aether velocity according to the Aether Theory of
    Velocity Effects.
  10. The Effective Radius distance is the circumference of a circle (ie orbit)
    centred on a gravitating body and divided by 2π . It is not equal to
    measurements made in either of the previous four distance units
    NON-EUCLIDEAN SPACE
    The radial distance r from a point in Space to the centre of a gravitating body
    might be measured in local distance units where dr = d
    q
    1 −
    2m
    r
    . However
    as the centre is approached the distance r diminishes and the local distance
    unit grows smaller. At distance 2m from the centre the local distance unit
    becomes zero and it is not possible to approach the centre any closer except
    by taking an infinite time to do so.
    The same problem occurs if the distance is measured by the radar method. If
    the radar pulse is not previously obstructed by matter and reaches the point
    where r = 2m it will never return to the sender who will conclude that the
    distance to the centre is infinite. This is an extreme case which only occurs
    with Black Holes.
    If the radius of the gravitating body exceeds 2m (the radius of the Sun is
    approx. 470, 000m ) the radar pulse will return but will always measure a
    greater distance to the centre (the radius of the body must be added) than the
    Effective radius distance. These facts determines that Space is non-Euclidean
    in nature.
    GRAVITATIONAL RED-SHIFT
    From eqn.2 tr = t
    .q
    1 −
    2m
    r
    . Hence time runs slower compared to the observers time when r is less than that of the observer, and vice versa.
    An atom on the surface of the Sun emitting a photon of light is a time
    unit generator where the time unit, the time of one wavelength of the emitted photon, is λ/c. However this time unit is determined in local time
    units at r = 700, 000km (the radius of the Sun). When observed on Earth
    (r = 150×106km) and measured in terms of local Earth time unit’s the pulse
    width and hence the wavelength appears dilated. The distance and journey
    time for a photon to travel from the Sun to Earth is a constant for all parts
    of the e/m waves and consequently the journey time does not additionally
    affect the wavelength. This time dilation effect is called the gravitational
    red-shift.
    An identical result comes from a consideration of the total energy of the
    photon. The energy lost by the photon of original frequency f in escaping
    3
    the Sun’s gravitational field is Ω times the ’mass’ of the photon ie. Ωhf/c2
    where Ω is the gravitational potential. As the energy hf equals hc/λ , the
    wavelength of the photon when measured by an observer at infinity (Earth
    is close enough to infinity) is (1 + Ω/c2
    ) or 
    1 + m
    rS
    
    , where rS is the radius
    of the Sun. An expansion of 1.q
    1 −
    2m
    r
    gives
    1 + m
    r
    
    when r ≫ m.
    THE BENDING OF A LIGHT RAY CROSSING A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD
    A light ray is observed to bend towards the Sun as it passes through Space
    close to the surface of the Sun and hence across the gravitational gradient of
    the Sun. This was first observed by Eddington et al in 1919.
    The bending of a light ray is of common and general occurrence on Earth.
    This phenomenum is refraction and is caused by one side of a photon travelling for some time at a slower velocity than the opposite side. The effect
    is to bend the path of the photon towards the region of the slower speed of
    light. On Earth, substances which exhibit a slower speed of light than that
    of Space are glass, water and air where increasing density causes a slower
    speed. The speed of light gradient may be intense, as at the surface of glass
    or water, or it may be more gradual as in the decreasing density of the Earths
    atmosphere with height.
    A differentiation of eqn. 3 gives the gradient of the speed of light in Space as
    gradient cr = δc/δr = 2mc/r2
    . (4)
    In equal times δt, (FIG 1) one side of the photon, A moves distance S where
    xsinθ
    x A
    B
    S
    θ
    δθ
    δ S
    δ
    δ
    c
    r
    r
    PHOTON PATH
    FIG 1
    as the opposite side B, distance x from A, moves a lesser distance S −δS, as
    a result of the slower speed of light at B.

Now
δθ = δS/x =
δc
δrx sin θδt/x =
δc
δr sin θδt
∴ δθ/δt =
δc
δr sin θ
Or
δθ =
δc
δr
sin θ
c
δd . (5)
As acceleration equals vdθ/dt generally, then the acceleration of the light ray
in a direction at right angles to its path is given by
acc = c sin θδc/δr . (6)
The acceleration down the speed of light gradient is given by
accr = c sin2
θδc/δr . (7)
So a speed of light gradient causes the acceleration of a light ray crossing
the gradient, down the gradient, which is the classical expectation for the
gravitational effect upon matter.
The degree of acceleration is a function of the angle θ which the ray makes
with the gradient. Maximum acceleration occurs at 90◦
. When the ray
moves in line with the gradient (θ = 0) it actually decelerates moving down
the gradient and vice versa.
Substituting eqn. 4 into eqn. 6 with θ = 90◦ gives
accr = 2mc2
/r2 = 2GM/r2
. (8)
Therefore light accelerates at twice the rate of matter at the same point in
Space.
REFRACTION IS THE ESSENCE OF GRAVITY
THE EINSTEIN OR STRONG EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE
The GTR is based upon the truth of the Strong Equivalence Principle (SEP).
The SEP states that:-

  1. The results of all local experiments in a frame in free fall are independent of their motion and
  2. The results are the same for all such frames at all places and times.
    The SEP can readily be demonstrated to be false by carrying out the following experiment in a frame in free fall;
    5
    A light ray is ’dropped’ within the frame and its acceleration measured relative to the falling frame. As the acceleration of light accL is twice that of
    matter accM and the frame is falling at accM then the relative acceleration
    of the light ray to the frame is 2accM − accM = accM. Hence the result of
    the experiment is not only dependent on the motion of the frame, it actually
    measures the acceleration of the frame ie. the strength of the external gravitational field. Consequently the SEP is false.
    There are great practical difficulties in carrying out this experiment but they
    are of no matter as the experiment is a theoretical one. The practical problem
    lies in confining the light ray to the falling frame for long enough to be able to
    measure the acceleration. This could be arranged with two perfect reflecting
    mirrors exactly facing each other so as to confine the light ray between the
    mirrors. The acceleration of the ray is measured along a plane parallel to the
    mirror surfaces.
    In order to also determine the ’artificial’ acceleration of the frame, ie. that
    generated by electric or magnetic fields, generally applied by contact with
    atoms, it is an improvement to drop a mass object as well as a light ray.
    accM is then the relative acceleration of the mass object to the frame which
    then gives a direct measure of the ’atomic’or ’artificial’ acceleration.
    The GTR is based upon the equivalence of artificial and gravitational accelerations. In other words all acceleration is relative. The above experiments
    show this postulate to be untrue.
    TESTS OF THE ATG
    Appendix A demonstrates that the refraction effect of Space bends a light
    ray from a distant star which passes close to the surface of the Sun on its
    way to an observer on Earth by exactly the amount observed by Eddington
    and many others since, in more accurate experiments.
    Appendix B demonstrates the additional photon or radar distance between
    two points when the gravitational field of a massive body is inserted in between. In this case the massive body is the Sun, one point is the Earth and
    the second point is another planet on the far side of the Sun.
    Appendix C demonstrates the precession of an orbit (in particular of Mercury) due to the effects of equations 1 and 3.
    All the predictions of the ATG agree with the observations.
    6
    APPENDIX A
    THE BENDING OF A LIGHT RAY PASSING CLOSE TO THE
    SUN
    EARTH STAR
    SUN
    LIGHT RAY
    d

R

R
S

θ
FIG A1
when the acceleration is at right angles to the path of the ray we have
LIGHT RAY
δθ
δ d
δ x
x FIG A2
From fig A2 if δx ≪ δd then δθ = δx/δd.
An acceleration in the x direction is given by δx/δt2
.
Also δt = δd/c therefore
δθ = accxδd/c .
From fig A1 accX = accRRS/R
∴ δθ = accR
RS
Rc2
δd . (A1)
According to the inverse square law
accR = accRS
R2
S
R2
∴ δθ = accRS
R3
S
R3c
2
δd .
7
From fig A1
θ =
accRSR3
S
c
2
Z
0

δd
(R2
S + d
2
)
3/2
∴ θ =
accRSR3
S
c
2
"
d
R2
S
(R2
S + d
2
)
1/2
#0

∴ θ =
accRSR3
S
c
2


1
R2
S

= accRS
RS
c
2
.
From eqn. 8 for accr θ =
2m
RS
.
As m = 1.47km and Rs = 697 × 103km then θ = 0.88 arc secs.
The total deflection from infinity to infinity is twice the above at 1.76 arc
secs. As neither the star or the Earth are at infinity the deflection calculates
to be 1.75 arc secs which is the amount observed.
8
APPENDIX B
A MEASURE OF INCREASED DISTANCE WHEN THE SUN
IS CLOSE TO THE LINE OF MEASURE
The distance from Earth to an object (planet or space-craft) on the opposite
side of the Sun is measured by the radar method, first with the Sun close to
the radar path and then distant from the path. The difference is predicted
and then compared with measurement.
EARTH
SUN
d
R
RS
θ
B
REFLECTOR
dB
dE
S
E
FIG 1B
The radar signal just grazes the Sun such that at point S, R = Rs.
The local speed of light cR = c

1 −
2m
R

where R =
p
R2
s + d
2
∴ δd/c =

1 −
2m
p
R2
s + d
2
!
δt . (1B)
Hence
δd/c =



1 −
2m
c
2

R2
s
c
2 + t
2
1/2



δt
∴ tS =




t −
2m
c
ln

t +
q
t
2 +
R2
s
c
2

Rs/c




0
T
tS is the time for a light ray to cover the distance dE or dB with the sun
present while t is the time when the sun is absent. T is the time for a light
ray to pass from S to either point B or E. In the case of the Earth (E),
T = 500µS.
The factor RS/c = 2.32s.
∴ tS = t −
2m
c

ln 1 − ln 1000
2.32 
. (2B)

The factor 2m/c = 9.8µs Hence tS − t = 59.5µS
If the reflector B is the same distance from the Sun as the Earth then the
round trip difference is 4 (ts − t) = 238µS. Therefore the distance measurement through Space from Earth to the reflector has increased by 35.7 km,
caused by the gravitational field of the Sun.
The predicted extra distance agrees accurately with several observations
made from Earth to Venus by Shapiro et al, 1972 thus once more confirming that GL = 2GM and the acceleration of light obeys the inverse square law.
10
APPENDIX C
THE PRECESSION OF MERCURY
The orbit of Mercury is more elliptical than any of the other planets of the
solar system (except for the distant planet Pluto). It has been noted by astronomers that the perihelion of Mercury’s orbit advances a little each orbit,
ie. it precesses. Calculations using Newtonian mechanics predict a precession of 532 arc secs per century as a result of the effect of the other planets,
notably Jupiter. However the observed precession is 43 arc secs greater than
can be explained by this means.
The cause of this particular precession is an inherent effect of the gravitational field described by equations 1 to 3.
The precession effect occurs in all orbits whether circular or elliptical but
naturally the precession cannot be detected in a circular or near-circular orbit. The degree of angular precession increases in inverse proportion to the
radius of the orbit hence Mercury exhibit’s the largest effect of all the planets
as well as possessing the necessary elliplicity to allow its detection.
The precession effect is most simply explained with a circular orbit where
V
2
r
Rr

mc2
r
2
. (C1)
The right hand side of eqn. 1 is the gravitational force and the left hand side
effectively describes the acceleration of Mercury towards the Sun in terms of
the rate of bending of its path in order to describe an orbit of radius Rr. Rr
and r are normally considered to be identical but in this case they are not.
Rr is the effective radius, ie. the orbit length divided by 2π , but in distance
units relevant to radius r.
vr can equally be given in terms of a fraction A of the speed of light cr. m is
the gravitating radius of the Sun and is 1.47km.
From eqns. 1 and 3 and the discussion above we have
A2
c
2

1 −
2m
r
2
r
q
1 −
2m
r

mc2
r
2
So
A2

1 −
2m
r
3/2
r

m
r
2
.
When r is large relative to m which is the case in the solar system we have
A2

1 −
3m
r

r

m
r
2
. (C2)
Therefore the effective radius of the orbit is r
1 −
3m
r

or r

1 + 3m
r


The orbit length therefore exceeds the nominal orbit length of 2πr by 6πm
or 27.7km in the solar system irrespective of orbit radius however large or
small (not for r < approx 4m). In angular terms this is 6πm/r radians.
For Mercury, r is 58 × 106 km hence the precession is 0.0985 arc secs /orbit
or 41 arc secs per century. This accounts for the anomaly within the limit of
observational accuracy.
Most explanations of this phenomenum are exceedingly and unnecessarily
more complex than the above explanation.
When r = 3m the orbit length will be infinitely longer than the nominal orbit
of 2π . Hence r = 3m is a limiting radius for orbits.
12
THE ACTION OF A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD ON MATTER
Equations 1 and 2 explain the behaviour of light in a gravitational field
through the effect of refraction but they do not explain the behaviour of
matter.
The competing theory, the GTR, explains the paths taken by light and matter
through a gravitational field as geodesics moving through curved Space-time.
The metric equation giving the geometry of Space-time (for a two dimensional
plane only) is
ds2 =

r − 2m
r

dt2 −

r
r − 2m

dr2 − r
2
dθ2
. (8)
The geometry of Space-time described in eqn. 8 applies to matter but for
light a different geometry is used where dS = 0. In other words the GTR
states that there is one Space-Time for matter and a different Space–Time for
light. It is highly implausible that the geometry of Space-Time could modify
itself according to which type of particle is moving through at a particular
time.
A scalar field of the local speed of light cr perfectly accounts for the known
gravitational phenomena of light and so it is reasonable to expect it to also
account for the gravitational effects observed of matter. The difference in
the two effects can only then be accounted for by the differing construction
of photons and fundamental matter particles and their different re-actions to
the gravitational field.
As the construction of a fundamental mass particle is not known the ATG
cannot be a complete theory. However a theory which requires a hypothesis
which may be correct is surely preferable to a theory which is definitely incorrect.
INERTIA
The predictions of the GTR for the paths of light and matter through Space
agree with the predictions of the ATG except in the vicinity of a Black Hole.
However the GTR has no explanation as to how objects are constrained to
follow these predicted paths. This requirement is a philosophical question
which needs much consideration for Mach’s explanation is untenable.
On the other hand the ATG proposes that Space is a substantial Aether and
all objects in Space are in contact with and indeed are effects of their local
Aether. Thus the path of photons and matter particles are determined precisely by the local Aether which causes the original path of these particles
to be continued but with a modification resulting from the local gradients of
the speed of light and electro-magnetic potentials.
13
A HYPOTHESIS OF A POSSIBLE CONSTRUCTION OF MATTER
The detailed construction of fundamental matter particles is not known and
may never be known. This section merely describes possible constructions
based upon certain known facts.
FACT 1
Under suitable conditions matter can transform into energy ie. Photons and
vice versa, according to the equation E = mc2
.
Instead of the e/m waves of a photon converting into an entirely different
substance called matter it is more likely that the e/m waves merely take on
a different geometry.
FACT 2
Electric and magnetic fields exhibit the phenomena that we consider particular to matter ie. inertia and kinetic energy. For example the energy within a
unit volume electric field is kE2/8π and in a magnetic field µH2/8π. There is
therefore no need for a special matter substance to exhibit these parameters.
FACT 3
The upper limit of matter velocity is precisely the velocity of electro-magnetic
waves. How is it that a special matter substance be limited by the velocity of a completely different substance, photons, unless matter and photons
were both constructed of electro-magnetic waves. This paper therefore postulates that fundamental matter units are constructed of electro-magnetic
waves moving in a three dimensional vortex of minute dimensions.
THE E/M VORTEX OF A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD
It follows from the effect of a gravitational field upon a photon that the path
of the e/m waves in a vortex will also be bent, depending on their angle of
incidence to the speed of light gradient.
An e/m vortex stationery in the Aether must be symmetrical in all directions.
It is therefore assumed that the vortex can be broken down into a set of two
dimensional circular paths where the plane of the circular path takes all angles over time, to any particular direction in Space. The more simple action
of a speed of light gradient upon an e/m circular path can then be considered.
When the plane of the e/m ring is at 90◦
to the speed of light gradient the
14
e/m wave path will be bent continuously in a direction down the gradient
according to eqn. 5. The e/m ring as an entity will accelerate down the
speed of light gradient. On the other hand, an e/m ring whose plan is at 0◦
to the speed of light gradient will be affected differently. Any bending caused
when the e/m waves move with a component at 90 to the gradient will be
lost when the waves move parallel to the gradient. Hence although the e/m
ring is slightly distorted the distortion does not build up over time and no
acceleration is generated.
In practice the e/m rings exist at all angles to the speed of light gradient but
when broken down into components, the component at 90◦
to the gradient
must be equally as common as the component at 0◦
to the gradient. Hence
for one half the time the vortex is subject to an acceleration down the gradient and for the other half it is not. This may explain why light accelerates
at twice the rate of matter.
MATTER VELOCITY
It is known that the exposure of matter to a gravitational field causes an
acceleration of that matter. In other words, after an exposure of a finite
time the material object is given a certain velocity in the direction of the
field in addition to any velocity possessed prior to the time period. If the
gravitational field could be theoretically switched off at the end of the period
the induced velocity would continue for ever.
From the previous consideration of the possible structure of the vortex and
the accelerating effect of a speed of light gradient upon the e/m rings it
would appear that the gradient causes a distortion of the geometry of the
vortex which then causes the vortex to ’screw’ a path through the Aether at
a velocity which is a function of the degree of screw times the speed of light.
The degree of screw is permanent, (one aspect of inertia), until changed by
a further exposure to an accelerating field.
From this postulate of the construction of matter it follows that

  1. Matter velocity (relative to the Aether) is a result of the geometry of
    matter particles both in the degree and direction of the screw
  2. Matter velocity is determined by the degree of screw distortion times
    the speed of light. Hence matter velocity is a given fraction of the local
    speed of light. The maximum degree of screw approaches unity where
    the velocity of matter approaches the velocity of its constituent part,
    e/m waves, the speed of light.
  3. As kinetic energy and hence mass (E = mc2
    ) is a function of particle
    velocity which in turn is a function of the degree of screw distortion, it
    follows that particle mass is determined by the particle geometry.
    15
    ACCELERATION BY ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS
    This section is outside the scope of this paper but nevertheless is an obvious
    extension.
    An electric field is a field of the gradient of electric potential and a magnetic
    field is a field of the gradient of magnetic potential. A fundamental matter
    particle, ie. an e/m vortex, situated in an electric or magnetic field superimposes its internal e/m potentials on the e/m potential gradients of the local
    field. These gradients unbalance the internal potentials in a similar manner
    to a speed of light gradient as previously described. The effect is likely to be
    a similar one in which a degree of ’screw’ deformation is produced in the e/m
    vortex. Consequently electric and magnetic potential gradients also cause
    accelerations in matter. However they can not accelerate uncharged matter. Consequently fundamental matter particles must be charged positive or
    negative with uncharged particles non fundamental, being a combination of
    various charged particles.
    When subject to an ambient electro-magnetic gradient the charged constituents within an uncharged particle move until the ambient gradient is
    cancelled by the field gradients of the other constituent particles.
    THE PATH OF A MATTER PARTICLE
    The path of a matter particle through Space with a zero speed of light gradient lies in a direction determined by the direction of the screw geometry of the
    particle. The e/m waves, the constituents of the particle, are super-imposed
    upon the local Aether and maintain the direction through the Aether. Where
    a speed of light gradient exists the effect is to cause an acceleration of the
    particle down the gradient which then modifies the geometry of the particle
    to a changed direction and degree. The degree of screw distortion of the geometry of the particle is a fractional factor which operates on the local speed
    of light to generate the local velocity of the matter particle.
    16

COSMIC EXPANSION

By R.F. Norgan (20/12/1999)
REDSHIFT
The wavelength of the light that we receive on Earth from distant galaxies
is shifted towards the red end of the visible spectrum. This phenomenom is
called redshift (Z). It means that the wavelength of the emitted radiation
has increased between emission from the galaxy and reception here on Earth
many light years later. The obvious explanation for redshift is a Doppler
Effect which states that the wavelength of any emission is modified by the
relative velocity (strictly speaking, the change in distance) between source
and receiver. If the distance between the source and receiver is increasing
then the wavelength increases and vice-versa. It therefore appears that the
distant galaxies are receding from Earth. When the relative velocity between
source and receiver v is very much less than the transmission velocity, the
speed of light c, the Doppler equation can be written in a simple form.
Z =
λ0 − λe
λe

v
c
.
In the unusual case where a nearby galaxy is found to give a negative redshift
ie. a blue shift, the relative velocity is negative and the galaxy is approaching
Earth.
HUBBLE EXPANSION
In 1929 Edwin Hubble came to an important conclusion based upon the
measured redshift of many galaxies. He found that the further away the
galaxy the greater the redshift and hence the greater the recession velocity.
The relationship is described by the following equation.
cZ = H0d .
Where H0 is the value of Hubbles constant H at the present time (assuming
that H is a function of time). The value of H0 has not yet been accurately
determined but is approximately 75km/s per mega-parsec (one parsec is 3.26
light years).
Naturally cosmologists sought an explanation for this general expansion of
the universe. George Gamow and others suggested that the expansion started
from a single point in Space and time several billions of years ago. Prior to
that event neither matter, energy, distance or time existed but that at the
event the entire matter and energy of today’s universe was created in an instant. From that single point of zero dimensions the universe has continued
to expand and develop. Gamow’s hypothesis is commonly known as the Big
Bang explanation, or BB theory for short. However the name Big Bang does
not give an accurate picture of Gamow’s hypothesis. In his description there
1
is no bang as such for there never was a high central pressure in the universe
to accelerate matter through Space. Instead, the expansion is one of Space
itself, with matter and energy embedded in it.
According to the theory all points in Space remain the same relative distances
apart. What changes is a universal scale factor R, which is continuously increasing. This scale factor modifies the value of all distance. For example,
if in a certain time the scale factor increases by say 10% then the distance
between any and every two points in Space, whether one micron apart or
one billion light years apart, will increase by 10%. The longer the distance
the greater the absolute increment hence the greater the separation velocity
between the two points. Hence Gamow’s hypothesis seemed to fit Hubbles
observations.
THE DIFFICULTIES OF THE BIG BANG THEORY
However there are several obvious problems with the BB theory. For instance,
how could the entire matter/energy of the universe be created from nothing.
Also, how could time and distance be created and should not these dimensions always exist. Furthermore, what exists beyond the boundary of the
expanding universe and so exactly what does the universe expand into. All
these questions are unanswerable and refer to seemingly impossible processes
and circumstances pointing to the invalidity of the BB theory. However it
must be realised that these or similar difficult questions can be asked of any
theory of the creation of the universe. For example, an alternative hypothesis
of a universe of infinite age and dimensions has no start event or boundary
problem but infinite time and infinite distance with no boundaries are equally
impossible to imagine. Consequently this type of criticism is not specific to
the BB theory.
Nevertheless there are numerous criticisms of the BB theory which are specific to that theory alone. For example immediately after the point of creation
but prior to any expansion, the distance dimensions of the universe would
necessarily be zero. Assuming that the energy created was in the form of
e/m waves these waves must be of a certain finite length, however short.
And yet, at point zero, length did not exist and so energy could not exist.
If, alternatively, the universe was created over a finite volume possessing distance dimensions at the very start, then how could the mass/energy creation
event occur simultaneously at all points of a finite volume. A means of synchronisation at an infinite velocity would have been required but we have no
knowledge of a possible mechanism to achieve that end.
A further difficulty lies in the essence of expansion. What exactly is the
substance of Space that it possesses the ability to expand for it is not logical
that ’nothing’ can expand, for a multiple of nothing is still nothing. The
BB theory does not give any description of or give substance to Space, the
expansion of which is the very basis of the BB theory.
2
THE MECHANISM OF COSMIC EXPANSION
Accepting without further question that Space does expand, consider now
the explanation given by the BB theory of the mechanism that controls and
determines the rate of expansion. Although the BB theory accepts that the
observed expansion is one of Space, nevertheless it maintains that the expansion is determined by the kinetic energy of matter embedded in Space,
notwithstanding that in the early stages of the universe matter did not yet
exist. If matter is merely passively embedded in an expanding Space why
then should it have any effect upon the mechanism of expansion. It appears
that this explanation of the BB theory stems partly from the Space Expansion Theory and partly from a traditional big bang where matter is forcibly
accelerated through Space by a central excess of pressure. Hence the BB theory combines aspects of two entirely different mechanisms in its explanation
of cosmic expansion.
THE FRIEDMANN EQUATION
The above explanation of cosmic expansion is embodied in the famous Friedmann equation which is at the heart of the BB theory. Friedmann accepts
that the expansion velocity is determined by the inertia of matter, ie. the
expansion velocity is kinetic in nature. This is clear from the fact that in
his model the expansion velocity is modified by the deceleration caused by a
universal gravitational field as well as his assumption that cosmic expansion
velocity creates kinetic energy. He gives the total energy of the universe as:-
TOTAL ENERGY = KINETIC ENERGY + POTENTIAL GRAVITATIONAL ENERGY .
Friedmann’s universal gravitational field decelerates the expanding matter
towards a central point and depending upon the matter density of the universe gravity will or will not eventually overcome the current kinetic energy.
If not, then the universe will expand for ever but if overcome then the outward velocity of matter will reverse until all matter will eventually meet
back at the central point in an event termed the Big Crunch. (the proponents of the BB theory deny the existence of a central point but if one does
not exist then in which direction does a universal gravitational field operate).
It is difficult to understand how Friedmann’s centrally directing universal
gravitation field can exist, for a universe which is accepted to be both isotropic
and homogenous cannot by definition exhibit a gravitational potential difference on a large scale.
The Friedmann equation is absolutely central to the BB theory for it generates predictions for both the age and the size of the universe as well as
the rate of cosmic expansion. Furthermore it predicts the proper distance to
distant galaxies according to their redshift.
3
Hence dp = 2HL

1 − √
1
1+Z

Where HL = c/H0 and is called the Hubble length.
It can be seen that proper distance is not a linear function of redshift which
is surely rather strange.
THE RATE OF EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE (BB THEORY)
If H0 is taken to be 50km/s per mega parsec then according to BB theory
the radius of the universe is 39 × 109
light years and its age is 13 × 109 years.
Consequently the average expansion velocity of galaxies at the ’edge’ of the
universe is three times the speed of light. The further back one goes in time
the more rapid is the expansion. For example, when the universe was only 1
light year old the rate of expansion was 4700 times the speed of light and at
an age of one second it was 740, 000 c. During the period of ’inflation’, an
attempt to overcome a serious flaw in the BB theory, the rate of expansion
was an astonishing 3 × 1041 times the speed of light.
It is obvious from these extreme velocities that they cannot be trans-Aether
velocities limited to the speed of light and so it follows that neither can they
be kinetic velocities which cause kinetic energy. If cosmic expansion velocities
are not kinetic then the Friedmann equation is wrong and it follows that the
BB theory which predicts these fantasy velocities must also be wrong.
THE AETHER THEORY OF COSMIC EXPANSION (ATCE)
The Postulates

  1. All Space is occupied by a substance, the Aether, which supports electric and magnetic potentials and determines their velocity of propagation.
  2. The Aether increases in volume at a rate which is constant over position
    and time.
    The first postulate is the general postulate of a universal Aether. The second
    postulate determines cosmic expansion. Both postulates are independent of
    the existence of matter and energy.
    THE EXPANSION OF SPACE
    The rate of increase of volume as described by postulate 2 is given by the
    constant HV in units of a fractional part per year. An expansion of volume
    naturally causes an increase in linear distance between points in Space at a
    4
    rate of HL where HL = HV /3.(HV is very small).
    A point in the Aether is considered to be a physical body of unit volume
    rather than of zero volume, thus the Aether consists of countless minute unit
    volumes (termed Aethons). Points in Space can not be directly detected or
    accessed by material objects.
    Postulate 2 describes a geometric expansion of Space with time constants of
    1/HV and 1/HL for volume and distance respectively. The parameters of
    proper distance s, velocity v and acceleration a, are given by the following
    equations. (Proper distance is a theoretical tape measure type of distance
    measured between two points instantly).
    s = s0e
    tHL (1)
    v =
    ds
    dt = s0HLe
    tHL (2)
    acc =
    d
    2
    s
    dt2
    = s0H
    2
    L
    e
    tHL (3)
    At the present time s = s0
    V0 = s0HL (4)
    acc0 = s0H
    2
    L
    (5)
    Eqn. 4 describes the velocity of cosmic expansion where V0 equals cZ (it can
    be seen later on that this is true for all values of Z). In the Aether Theory
    of Cosmic Expansion (ATCE) HL is constant over time and place such that
    the value of Hubbles constant as measured today (H0) equals HL.
    COSMIC EXPANSION AND TRANS AETHER VELOCITY
    The two postulates together require that cosmic expansion velocity and transAether velocity are two entirely different forms of velocity.
    The velocity of matter (sub-luminal velocity) and energy (at the speed of
    light) are characterised by movement ’through’ the Aether and relative to
    the Aether. These velocities are kinetic velocities which determine the kinetic energy content of a particle, 1
    2mv2
    for matter and hc/λ for photons.
    On the other hand, cosmic expansion velocity is almost a theoretical velocity
    and is merely a shorthand way to describe the rate of creation of distance between two points in Space over time. It should be realised that trans-Aether
    or kinetic velocity is an entirely separate parameter to cosmic expansion velocity. All the laws of physics which are functions of velocity such as the law
    of kinetic energy and the Aether Theory of Velocity Effects (ATVE) (or STR
    for those who choose Einsteins theory) are functions of trans-Aether velocity
    rather than cosmic expansion velocity.
    5
    A confusion between the two velocities can occur as they both create an e/m
    wave-length shift. This is simply because both cosmic expansion and a receding trans-Aether velocity, whether of source or observer or both, create
    additional Space between the emitter of a photon (a star) and the observer
    of that photon ie during the passage of that photon.
    Hence the famous Friedmann equation which is at the centre of BB theory
    is fundamentally at fault for considering kinetic energy to be a function of
    cosmic expansion velocity. Also, as the theory of velocity effects (ATVE) is
    not a function of cosmic expansion velocity, that velocity is not upper limited
    to the speed of light which is the case for trans-Aether velocities. Therefore
    cosmic expansion velocities can exceed the speed of light to any degree. The
    highest cosmic expansion velocity measured to date is 5.6c.
    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REDSHIFT,
    PROPER DISTANCE AND APPARENT MAGNITUDE
    Consider the light received on Earth from a star in a distant galaxy. As we
    are concerned here with the effects of cosmic expansion the effects of transAether velocities will be ignored. During the lifetime of the emitted photons
    their wavelength will be subject to the effects of cosmic expansion such that
    the wavelength is a distance affected by eqn. 1 thus
    λ0 = λee
    tHL . (6)
    Where t is the lifetime of the photon and λ0 and λe are the wavelengths of
    the photon at observation (the end of period t) and emission (the beginning
    of period t) respectively. The duration t is given by sLP /c where sLP is the
    length of the path of the photon.
    The redshift is given by
    Z =
    λ0 − λe
    λe
    = e
    SLP HL/c − 1 . (7)
    As each photon moves towards Earth through Space both the Space distance
    behind it to the galaxy and the Space distance in front to Earth are expanding
    according to eqn.1. Each segment of distance δs behind the photon has
    expanded as a function of the time since the photon passed that segment.
    The sum of all these segments when the photon strikes Earth is the proper
    distance sP between Earth and the galaxy.
    Therefore
    SP = c
    Z T
    0
    e
    tHL dt =
    c
    HL

e
tHL
SLp/c
0
∴ SP =
c
HL

e
SLpHL/c − 1

6
Therefore substituting from eqn. 7
SP = cZ/HL . (8)
And from eqn. 4
v =
cZ
HL
× HL = cZ . (9)
Equation 8 is Hubbles equation and equation 9 is a derived form of Hubbles
equation. In BB theory neither equation is linear with Z with considerable
variation for high values of Z where-as eqns. 8 and 9 above are always linear
irrespective of the value of Z.
Because the relative magnitude of a star is a function of its proper distance
SP equation 8 gives a linear relationship between relative magnitude and log
redshift. However two effects separate to cosmic expansion diminish light
intensity at high redshifts. The first effect is due to the loss of energy of each
photon directly due to the redshift (E = he/λ) and the second effect arises
from the cosmic expansion velocity as less photons are received per second
than are transmitted. The combined effect is to diminish the light flux received and hence increase the observed magnitude by the factor 5 log (1 + Z).
THE DETERMINATION OF HL
Cosmologists measure the distance to a galaxy or star by various means.
They also measure the redshift Z. From eqn. 9, which is equally true for
cosmic expansion velocity as it is for trans-Aether velocity (The Doppler
equation is identical to eqn. 9 for low velocities) they determine the total
recession or radial velocity. Where the recession velocity deviates from that
predicted from Hubbles Law (eqn. 8) the difference is considered to be the
radial component of the trans-Aether velocity or ’peculiar’ velocity, as it is
termed by cosmologists. The direction of the trans-Aether velocity is random relative to the direction to Earth and hence there is also a transverse
component of the peculiar velocity which naturally does not contribute to
observed redshift. Peculiar or trans-Aether velocities are generally less than
1000 km/s (3.3 × 10−3
c) and so do not seriously modify redshifts in excess
of Z = 0.03.
After the removal of the random trans-Aether velocity component the remaining velocity is the Hubble Flow velocity and it can be seen that this is
the Cosmic expansion velocity given by eqn. 4.
There is as yet no universal agreement for the value of H. However it is
expected to be within 50 − 100 km/s per mega-parsec. In future discussion
7
I use the mid point value of 75 km/s per mega parsec.
H0 = HL = 75km/s per mega parsec
= 23km/s per mega light year
= 3 × 105
km/s per 13 × 109
light years
= 1 part in 13 billion per year
∴ HV = 3HL = 1 part in 4.3 billion per year
IMPLICATIONS FOR OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE UNIVERSE
According to the postulates a given volume of Space doubles every 3 × 109
years. If the volume of the universe is infinite then accordingly it will remain
infinite for any time in the future or the past. If however the universe is finite
then its volume will double every 3 × 109 years forward in time and halve for
the same period backwards in time. Consequently the volume of the universe
was never zero back in time under either scenario. Therefore according to this
theory (ATCE) the universe did not have a starting point and is infinitely old.
At the current date redshifts have been observed in excess of 5 eg. Z = 5.6.
From eqn. 8 this implies a universe of radius at least 72.8 × 109
light years
(assuming that the observed redshift is entirely due to cosmic expansion).
The ATCE is a theory about Space (the Aether) and is not concerned with
matter or energy other than as a means of investigating Space. The following
comments on matter and energy are entirely speculative.
MATTER
As Space volume is continuously being created this implies a diminuation in
matter density if new matter is not being created. This in turn implies that
the density of matter was infinite an infinite time ago. This would appear
to be an unlikely scenario. The only alternative is that matter is also being
continuously created, probably at a similar rate to the creation of Space such
that matter densities remain substantially constant over time. Possibly the
creation of matter is somehow a by product of the creation of Space.
GRAVITY
It is accepted that the variation in the Aether distance and time units which
are the essence of a gravitational field is an entirely separate Aether effect to
the second postulate of this theory.
8

THE NATURE OF TIME

By R.F. Norgan Oct 2004
THE HUMAN CONCEPT
Our human concept of time is one of a universal dimension that controls the
rate of change and movement of every material object. Furthermore we expect the rate of passage of time to be constant everywhere in the universe even
though we have no way of knowing whether it is or not. We also expect that
a particular instant in time occurs simultaneously everywhere in the universe.
SIMULTANEITY
Science, in the guise of Albert Einstein disabused us of this last notion. If
suddenly the Sun stopped radiating light we would not know about the event
until 8.3secs later as it takes that long for light to reach Earth. In fact, we
come to know of all events in the universe through their emitted light or
other electro-magnetic radiation. That knowledge is delayed by the duration of transmission of the speed of light over the intervening distance. This
delay may be as great as tens of billions of years. One event may be the
emission of a photon by a far distant galaxy and another event the collision
of that photon with Earth. The two events are separate even though one
causes the other. It is possible with a knowledge of the intervening distance
between the two events to calculate the separation of these events on an artificial universal time basis but this is of no practical importance compared
to the fact of the two events. Universal simultaneity is a meaningless concept.
MOTION IS THE ESSENCE OF TIME
Time is manifested in an infinite variety of ways, eg through the obvious
movement of material objects such as motor cars, aeroplanes, ships, clouds,
birds and animals etc, but also through what humans call ’change’. Change
occurs in the growth and decay of living organisms such as plants and animals.
It is characterised as a very slow and often unseen movement of material deep
within the body of the organism. Change also occurs in features of the landscape such as the course of rivers, the height and shape of mountains, the
coastline and, even less perceptible, the drift of continents. The cause of landscape change is once again the slow and mostly hidden movement of material.
The one common factor in all these examples is the movement of material,
albeit at a great variety of velocities from near zero to just below the speed
of light. Light itself moves at 2.998×108 m/s although we tend to think that
such an extreme movement relative to our everyday observations is instantaneous. The discussion above has now simplified the action of time somewhat
to the general movement of material and energy. Nevertheless such a great
variety of possible velocities does not immediately point to a mechanism by
which time controls these different velocities.
UNITS OF TIME
It is convenient for humans to separate the steady ’flow’ of time into arbitrary but constant length ’chunks’ which we call time units. The first time
1
unit chosen was the ’day’, the time for a single rotation of the Earth. The
end of the day and the beginning of the next could be readily ascertained
by an astronomical observation of the stars or the Sun. Until the end of the
19th Century we knew of no time source more constant and reliable than the
rotation of the Earth and the day time unit became our standard for thousands of years.
A time unit of one day was rather inconvenient for human beings who practiced many different operations during the course of a day such as sleeping,
eating, working etc. The day time unit was therefore subdivided into 24
parts (hours) which were then further subdivided into 60 parts (minutes)
and further still into another 60 parts (seconds). In the physics laboratory
the second eventually became the time unit standard as it could be generated more conveniently, and more importantly, with greater stability than
the revolution of the Earth.
Instead the second was generated directly from the swing of a pendulum, the
oscillation of a balance wheel , more recently from the vibration of a minute
quartz tuning fork and even more accurately from the vibration of Caesium
atoms. The essential requirement of all time unit generators (TUGs) is that
each time unit is an exact replica of all others ie. the generator rotates or
oscillates in an identical manner. This requirement provides a constancy of
the time unit length over long time periods and varying ambient conditions.
Although all practical TUGs oscillate or rotate this is not an essential requirement. For example, if an object moved at a constant velocity the distance
along its path could be marked out in equal distances such that each time
the object passed a distance marker it would indicate the end of one time
unit and the start of the next. One of the great practical disadvantages being
that eventually the moving object passes beyond our limits of observation.
It should be noted that arbitrary distance markers are not essential as with
an object moving at a constant velocity the analogue distance moved by the
object relates directly to the time passed. It will be seen that this particular point achieves a greater significance later. The other practical difficulty
of such a clock lies in choosing a moving object with exactly constant velocity.
THE PHOTON CLOCK
The most constant velocity possible is the movement of a light ray. This velocity is a universal constant ie. it has exactly the same value, 2.998×108m/s,
at all points in Space. It is obviously not possible to construct a linear ie.
non oscillating clock, using a light ray as in one second the light ray would
have moved 300, 000 km away from the observer. Instead an oscillating TUG
can be constructed with two perfectly reflecting mirrors exactly facing each
other and separated by a matter rod of a constant but arbitrary length ’l’ .
A light pulse is introduced between the two mirrors such that it reflects back
and forth along the same track, in theory for ever. The boundary between
time units is the reflection of the light pulse from a chosen mirror and the
2
length of the time unit is given by 2l/c. A clock of this construction is called
a Photon Clock. As real mirrors are not perfect the light pulse eventually
diminishes in intensity but nevertheless the photon clock does operate in
practice for some time although, perhaps, its major use is as a theoretical
device in thought experiments.
The photon clock is the most perfect TUG possible as long as the matter rod
length remains unaffected by changes in ambient conditions.
VELOCITY EFFECTS ON THE TIME UNIT
However there is one factor which does modify the photon clock time unit
and equally affects all other forms of clock and matter systems . That factor
is velocity through the Aether.
The velocity of the Earth through the Aether is believed to be 360 km/s and
this velocity causes time to run slower on Earth by a factor of nearly one part
in a million relative to a planet which is stationary in the Aether (see the
PDF paper on Velocity Effects). The mechanism of the velocity effect upon
a photon clock is extremely instructive with regard to an understanding of
the nature of time.
The mechanism operates in two different ways dependent upon the orientation of the path of the internal light ray either at 0◦ or at 90◦
to the Aether
velocity of the clock. Figure 1 describes the path of the light ray when the
orientation is 90◦
. The light pulse initially leaves mirror 1 at Space point A
Mirror 2
Mirror 1
Aether

Velocity Ve
A′
B′
C′

A B C
l
FIG 1
in order to reach mirror 2 distance l away at Space point A1
. However mirror
2 has moved, due to its velocity Ve , in the time the light ray reaches it such
that the point A1 on mirror 2 opposite point A has moved on to Space point
B1
( in the same time, that point of mirror 1 which was at Space-point A has
also moved on to Space point B). On reflection of the ray back to mirror 1
the operation is exactly repeated and the mirror 1 point now occupies Space
point C and the mirror 2 point occupies Space point C
1
.
The triangle AB1B shows the effect. The light ray travels side AB1
and so
AB1
is proportional to the speed of light c. In the same time the mirror
3
travels side AB which is proportional to Ve. Side BB1
is exactly length l.
Consequently the actual length of AB1
AB1 = lc.p
c
2 − V 2
e
.
The time taken for light to traverse AB1
is
l
,
c
r
1 −
V
2
e
c
2
This factor equally applies to the return journey and hence to the whole time
unit.
But 2l/c is the time duration for the light pulse when Ve = 0 hence
t = t0
,r
1 −
V 2
e
c
2
(1)
Figure 2 describes the path of the light ray when the orientation is 0◦
. The
A B C A' B' C'
MIRROR 1 MIRROR 2
AETHER VELOCITY→
Ve FIG 2
light pulse leaves mirror 1 at Space point A and travels to mirror 2 which,
in the meantime has moved on to Space point B1 as a result of its Aether
velocity Ve. The light pulse reflects from mirror 2 back to mirror 1 which
again has now moved on to Space point C. It can be seen that distance AB1
is greater than AA1
(distance l) and that distance B1C is less than AA1
.
The distances AB1 and B1C can be calculated by taking the velocity of the
light pulse with respect to the two mirrors to be the vector addition of c the
speed of light and the Aether velocity i.e, c ± Ve. Thus the total time for the
light pulse to return to mirror 1 is
t = l

1
c + Ve
+
1
c − Ve


2l
c
1 −
V
2
e
c
2

= t0
1 −
V
2
e
c
2

(2)
It can be seen that Eqn. 2 is different from eqn. 1 by the factor p
1 − V
2
e /c2
.
But an additional factor, the Fitzgerald Lorentz (F-L) contraction effect
4
comes in to play when the orientation of the separating matter rod is at
0

to its Aether velocity. The F-L effect states that all matter contracts
in the direction of its Aether velocity by the factor p
1 − V
2
e
/c2
. Hence
l = l0
p
1 − V
2
e
/c2
. Eqn. 2 then becomes
t =
2l0
q
1 −
V 2
e
c
2
c

1 −
V 2
e
c
2
 = t0
,r
1 −
V
2
e
c
2
Hence the time unit is affected equally in either orientation. As any unknown
angle of orientation can always be broken down into components at 0◦ and
at 90◦ and as the effect is identical for either component then the effect is
identical for any angle of orientation of the photon clock. In fact the time
dilation effect applies equally to all matter objects or matter systems however
large or small.
The nature of time for matter systems is encapsulated by the path taken by
a light ray within a photon clock.
TIME AT THE AETHER LEVEL
We must assume that most matter systems are moving through the Aether
at various velocities and consequently their time unit is affected by that velocity as described in the previous paragraph. But now take a photon clock
which is stationary within the Aether. The orientation of a stationary clock
is entirely immaterial as there is no Aether velocity against which orientation
can be measured.
Also, consequent of the zero Aether velocity there is no F-L contraction effect and so the distance traversed by the light pulse over a single time unit
is always 2l. Furthermore the time duration is l/c in either direction of the
light pulse between the two mirrors. In fact, if instead we measure distance
in Space via some theoretical means then there is no need for the photon
clock (which represents a matter system) to determine a unit distance. Time
relative to the Aether can be directly measured by the analogue distance
travelled through the Aether by a light ray. It might even be said that a
separate time dimension does not and need not exist and this would be true
but for the existence of matter.
MATTER IS A PROBLEM
The difficulty of matter is that it does not travel at the speed of light. The
non-equal velocities of photons and matter particles indicate that the time
dimension mechanism of the universe which controls the different rates of
these velocities must lie within a far deeper aspect of the Universe than either energy or matter. However in my paper on the Aether Theory of Gravity (ATG), I postulate that fundamental particles (FMP’s) are constructed
of electro-magnetic waves, just as are photons, except that they move in a
minute spherical geometry. Hence, although this e/m vortex, as an entity,
may be stationary in the Aether, the electro-magnetic wave constituents of
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the vortex are all moving at the speed of light. Therefore at the Aether level,
the electro-magnetic constituents of both matter and photons all move at one
identical speed, the speed of light. It then follows that the assumption made
in the previous section was correct; that there is no separate Time dimension
and time instead is given by the distance moved through Space by e/m waves
eg. a light ray.
But there remains the problem of exactly which distance is the analogue of
time.
DISTANCE IN SPACE
It is seen in my paper, the Aether Theory of Gravity, that there are several
possible types of distance.
The most fundamental unit of distance is co-ordinate distance r where the
unit distance is determined by a sub -Aether, a more fundamental physical
substance than the Aether. The variable size of Aethons, the distance unit
of the Aether, is determined in distance units of the sub-Aether.
Photon distance is determined not only by the Aethon distance unit dr but
also by the Aethon time tr unit as the two together determine the local speed
of light.
cr = dr

tr = c∞

1 −
2m
r

(3)
Where m is the gravitating radius of a source mass and r is the distance in
co-ordinate units from its centre.
PHOTON DISTANCE
As we have determined that Time is the distance moved by a light ray then
that distance is naturally ’photon distance’. The photon distance may be
calculated theoretically and expressed in terms of the co-ordinate distance,
but it is photon distances alone which determine whether events occur or not
within our world of matter and energy.
If two photons, A and B, temporarily occupy the same point in Space and
then at a later time occupy the same but different point in Space then it
follows that the two photons must have traveled identical photon distances
between these two co-incidences notwithstanding that the two paths were
different and at least one path must have been bent to one degree or another.
If the path of photon A was known to pass through Space where the gravitational field was weak and the path of photon B was known to pass through
Space where the gravitational field was very strong then the co-ordinate distances and even the Aethon distances traveled by the two photons would be
very different notwithstanding that the photon distances were equal. But
6
from the point of view of the meeting and interaction of particles and hence
for the history and the future of the Universe it is photon distances that
matter.
TIME AT THE SUB- AETHER LEVEL
The electric and magnetic potentials residing in an Aethon are passed on to
contiguous Aethons after a time delay which is a unit time interval at the
level of the Aether but is a variable time at the level of the sub-Aether. As
the Aethon distance unit diminishes with increasing proximity to a mass,
then the Aethon time unit increases in an inverse relationship.
dr = d
r
1 −
2m
r
, tr = t
,r
1 −
2m
r
Hence time exists at the Aethon and sub-Aether level but it does not exist
in the form of a universal time dimension.
SPACE-TIME
Minkowski included Time as a fourth dimension in his geometric models of
Space and it was upon this model that Einstein based his General Theory of
Relativity (Gravity).
As time is not a dimension it follows that Minkowski Space-Time is a false
geometry of Space. The interval between two points in three dimensional
Space gives the distance between these two points which is an analogue of
the time that would be taken for a light ray to pass from one point to the
other. By including Time as a fourth dimension, albeit with a negative sign,
the interval δS is effectively and incorrectly included twice.
Einstein overcomes the error in the case of the light by putting the interval
δS to zero but kept δS for the case of matter. Thus, in the case of light
δt stands in for the omitted δS and the omission is really one of the time
dimension rather than of the interval. Consequently, Einstein employs two
separate geometries in his GTR, one with a time dimension for the case of
matter and one without a time dimension for the case of light.
Naturally Space cannot possess two separate geometries.

THE AETHER, WHY IT IS NEEDED

VOLUME
First and foremost, the Aether is the substance of volume. It is the only
substance which is volume as there is no separate matter substance.
Volume (Space) can be separated off into quantities of volume of varying
sizes by means of material or theoretical boundaries. It is therefore possible
to consider in an abstract manner, different quantities of volume, e.g. 1 litre
and 2 litres. If Space (volume) was nothing rather than a substance then 1
litre would necessarily be the same as 2 litres (or indeed a billion litres) as
any multiple of nothing still gives nothing. As we appreciate that 1 litre is
different to 2 litres volume must be a substance, the Aether.
The ancient Greeks applied a certain logic to the variable quantity, gold.
They deduced that gold must consist of variable numbers of identical gold
units which they called atoms and which are the essence of gold. The division of a gold atom does not produce two pieces of gold but parts which
are entirely different from gold. The logic of the Greeks is equally applicable
to any variable quantity of a homogenous substance and so it also applies
to volume. Consequently a quantity of volume must consist of a number of
identical volume units to which I give the name, Aethons. Presumably the
size of an Aethon is extremely small, far smaller than the smallest known
volume of matter. As an Aethon cannot by definition be sub-divided it must
also be the definition of a point in Space. Thus a point in Space possesses
unit volume rather than zero volume as is normally determined.
DISTANCE
As the Aether is volume it naturally determines distance in all directions,
the physical unit of distance being the distance between contiguous Aethons.
The distance between any two points in Space (Aethons) is determined by
the position of the two chosen Aethons in the matrix of Aethons which is the
Aether. An analogy might be two chosen but separated iron atoms within a
block of iron. They are forever separated by a certain distance by the iron
atoms in between . The separation distance in the Aether (and in iron) is not
determined by any one path of contiguous Aethons joining the two chosen
points but by each and every possible contiguous path, however convoluted.
The Aethon hypothesis of a natural distance unit in the universe, fanciful
though it might be thought to be, should be compared with the lack of available alternative explanations of distance.
It is not possible for humans or indeed for material objects to detect individual Aethons hence we cannot mark points in Space. Matter ’inhabits’
Aethons only transiently as matter moves through the Aether at various ve1
locities (the Earth possesses an Aether velocity of 360 km/s).
COSMIC EXPANSION
The Hubble redshift is caused by the recession velocity of galaxies, the further
the galaxy the higher the velocity. This effect is the result of the continuous
creation of new Aether. For every given volume of Space a constant fractional amount is newly created over a given time period. For example, over
a period of one year that fraction is one part in 4.3 billion (taking Hubbles
constant to be 75km/s per mega-parsec).
An alternative view is that each Aethon possesses the probability of changing
into two Aethons of 1 in 3 billion per year.
This hypothesis of the Aether predicts a universe of infinite age, a scenario
entirely different to that described by the Big Bang Theory of the creation
of the universe.
POTENTIALS IN THE AETHER
Prior to Einstein’s denial of the existence of the Aether in his Special Theory
of Relativity (STR) it was widely accepted that the electric and magnetic
potentials resided on physical points of the Aether. i.e. upon Aethons,. It
was also accepted that the e/m potentials propagate through the Aether at
the speed of light (3 × 108m/s) determined by the substance of the Aether.
This website demonstrates that Einsteins STR is faulty and hence the above
hypotheses still stand.
It is expected that the propagation velocity of e/m potentials arises from
the unit time taken to pass on e/m potential on an Aethon to its contiguous neighbour unit distance dA away. If this unit time interval is tA then
c = dA/tA. Thus the Aether propagates potentials in a similar, but nevertheless different way, to the way that matter propagates acoustic potentials.
Without the substance of the Aether there is no medium to support or to
propagate the e/m potentials.
Although the velocity of e/m propagation is locally the constant c, when
measured at a distance using units local to the observer (a theoretical measurement only ) the velocity is found to differ. The difference between the
local speed of light at a distance r from a gravitating body relative to the
velocity at r equals infinity is the gravitational potential at that point. At
distance r the Aethon distance unit dr is given by dr = d
q
1 −
2m
r while the
Aethon time unit tr is given by tr = t
.q
1 −
2m
r
. (Where d and t are the
units at r equals infinity and m is the gravitating radius of the mass). Thus
cr = c

1 −
2m
r

and the gravitational potential φ is given by φ = c(cr − c)/2.

Hence gravity is a direct consequence of this non-Euclidean property of the
Aether, the non-Euclidean property being caused by the presence of matter.
(See the Aether theory of gravity, ATG)
INERTIA
According to Newton, matter, when not subject to a force or accelerating
field, moves in a straight line at a constant velocity. This effect is called
inertia.
Newtons law of inertia appears at first sight to be straight forward and yet
it contains some difficulties. Firstly, the observation of the path and velocity
of the matter particle must be made from a frame of reference which is neither accelerating or rotating, termed an inertial frame of reference (IRF). A
frame of reference fixed to the surface of the Earth is not an IRF as the Earth
rotates both daily and in annual orbit around the Sun. Similarly a frame of
reference fixed to the solar system is unsuitable as the Sun rotates around
the Milky Way. However Newtons law appears to be true when observed
from a frame of reference fixed to distant stars and galaxies.
Ernst Mach evolved the Principle of Inertia in which he proposed that the
path of matter and light was not only a straight line relative to the stars
and galaxies but also that those paths are actually determined by the matter
contained in all the stars and galaxies of the whole universe. However, he
failed to describe a mechanism by which this control was effected and no such
mechanism has been discovered.
It does not take much consideration to realise that the path of a particle
through Space can only be determined through ’contact’ with the substance
of Space through which the particle moves, rather as the path of an acoustic wave is determined through and by a material substance. Thus it is the
Aether as a physical substance which determines the paths of particles which
move through it. Mach was confused by the fact that the distant stars and
galaxies effectively act as markers for the Aether. Most stars and galaxies
move through the Aether at velocities below 1000 km/s and at their great
distances from Earth these low velocities cause an exceedingly small angular
movement through the Aether. Hence the stars and galaxies mark the position of the Aether but their position, path and velocity is equally determined
by the Aether as is any particle of mass or energy.
The earlier section on e/m potentials and their propagation through the
Aether shows that the velocity of light, one aspect of inertia, is determined
by the Aether. The path of a light ray is propagated onwards in the original
direction unless the path crosses a speed of light gradient (non-Euclidean
Aether) in which case the path is bent towards the region of the slower
speed of light. Thus the Aether entirely controls the inertia of light. The
determination of the path and velocity of matter in the Aether is much more
3
complex, being partly a function of the unknown construction of fundamental
mass particles. A hypothesis of a possible construction is given at the end
of the section on gravity. This hypothesis explains how the inertia of matter
is determined by the Aether in combination with the internal geometry of
fundamental mass particles.
4