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THE AETHER EXISTS
I have found that in general, the academic community will not entertain criticism of Einstein or the possibility of an Aether and neither will journals publish papers on the subject, hence the reasons for this website, which I hope will initiate more debate on the subject.
I welcome comments and questions and will reply if time allows.
I also give lectures on my theories if conditions are acceptable.
All four theories (ATVE September 2000, ATG June 2004, Nature of Time Oct 2004, and ATCE December 1999) are the original work of R.F.Norgan who edits and owns this web site.
THE EXPERIMENT WHICH PROVES EINSTEIN WRONG
Everyone knows the original Twins paradox (TP) experiment where one identical twin B leaves Earth on a rocket ship and eventually returns after many
years to his stay-at-home twin A on Earth.
Now Special Relativity states that time dilation is observed in a different
inertial reference frame (IRF) to that of the observer. Simply, if A and B
are two identical clocks moving at constant velocity relative to each other
then clock A will observe clock B to run relatively slow. However it is also
true that clock B will observe clock A to run relatively slow. Hence both
clocks paradoxically observe each other to run slow. This absurdity, called
the Dingle paradox, is the crux of the Twins Paradox.
The Dingle paradox suffers from the practical difficulty that at least one
reading of each clock by the other must be made over a separation distance.
This causes difficulties as to whether the observed effects are real, observational or what. The Twins Paradox experiment overcomes this problem as it
consists of a double out and return Dingle experiment with the benefit that
it eliminates observations over distance to give an undisputable real result.
In the standard version of the TP the travelling twin accelerates three times,
once away from Earth then at the point of velocity reversal and finally before
touch down on Earth.
Now it is the case that relative velocity for the purposes of SR must be
constant, ie both the observer and the observed clock must inhabit IRFs.
Hence SR cannot apply to accelerating objects and so the accelerations in
the standard TP are an embarrassment to SR. However the accelerations can
be removed by modifying the experiment to employ three clocks instead of
two such that clock B makes the outward journey and passes its reading on to
clock C which then makes the return journey to clock A. Nevertheless SR still
has difficulty with the prediction of clock B, C of clock A at the final reading.
The SR Prediction of the TP
Special relativity and alternative theories agree on the prediction of clock
A on the final reading of the other clock(s) and this prediction agrees with
observation. Different theories disagree in their prediction of the out and
return clock of the relative reading of A.
Although it is only strictly necessary to read and compare clocks at the final
co-incidence it is very instructive for the clocks to make continuous readings
of each other over the separation distance.
At the reversal point clock B has accumulated a certain count n. From the
point of view of B clock A will be reading (n − x) where the factor x is due
to SR predicted time dilation. As clock B covers the same distance back to
A at the same velocity V clock B will read 2n at the final co-incidence. From
the point of view of B clock A will then read (2n − 2x due to further time
dilation. In fact A reads (2n + 2x). Thus SR makes an incorrect prediction.
The Aether Theory of Velocity Effects (ATVE)
See the full paper on the ATVE.
The ATVE states that the velocity effects of length contraction, time dilation and mass increase apply only to matter systems and are real effects.
The Aether velocity effect factor is identical to the Lorenz factor except that
the relevant velocity is Aether velocity as opposed to relative velocity. An
observer sees the ratio of the real effect on the observed object to the real
effect on his own material units.
When the Aether velocity of the observer is a small fraction of c (the Aether
velocity of the solar system is believed to be 0.0012c) the difference in the
reading of two identical clocks of the duration between two events is given by:-
− Vd/2c2 − VeAdpA/c
where d is the distance moved by clock B through a reference IRF inhabited
by clock A and dpA is the current distance between the object and an observer in the ref. IRF but in-line with the direction of the Aether velocity of
the ref. IRF.
In the case of the Twins Paradox dpA is zero at the final reading.
In addition the ATVE describes an Aether communication effect (ACE) due
to the anisotropy of the speed of light over the separation distance which is
(see the ATVE paper).
Under all observations the real ratio effect and ACE combine to give:-
Thus velocity V can be changing, i.e. the object clock can be accelerating to
any degree and direction over the course of the experiment.
Thus the ATVE can perfectly handle the original TP with accelerations.
The ATVE explanation
Where the observer (clock A) is in the reference IRF eqn 2 predicts his observation of clock B no matter that clock B moves and accelerates in any
fashion so long as the pattern is known. If clock A is also accelerating the
time dilation of clock A relative to the ref. IRF can also be calculated and
the difference in time dilation calculated for clocks A and B is the relative
time dilation between the two.
When the observation is reversed and clock B observes clock A the ACE of
clock B needs to be converted into ref. IRF velocities. ACE for clock B then
2 + VeAdpA/c
(see the ATVE paper) (3)
The combination of the real effect (eqn 1 and ACE (eqn. 3) then becomes
2 which is the inverse of that observed from the reference IRF as
If clock B inhabits IRFs both in the outward and the return journey then
observations of clock A can be made directly from B in which case eqn. 1 is
employed. However the change of observation effect at the velocity reversal
creates a one off observation effect of 2V d/c2 which modifies observations on
the return journey. The final reading agrees with that of clock A.
The ATVE predictions agree with observations throughout the TP experiment for distance d inequations 1,2 and 3 can take any value.
Your comments are welcome. firstname.lastname@example.org
If you agree with the ATVE explanation of the TP please link your
website to this one
RELATIVITY IS A NONSENSE
1 − V
(1 + VxVeA/c2
Thus eqn.3 can now be given as:-
1 − V
(1 + VxVeA/c2
The above function applies equally to matter length and mass as well as time.
For low values of VA ( which is applicable to the solar system) eqn. 11 can
be shown in a different form and becomes:-
tA/tB = 1 − V
2 − VAVx/c2
The measured time difference is (TA − TB) = TA[V
2 + VAVx/c2
As d = TA/V and dx = TA/Vx we also have
(TA − TB) = dV/2c
2 + VAdx/c2
The velocity effect cannot yet be calculated as the function still involves an
unknown Aether velocity in the right-hand part of the function. This function, VAdx/c2
, is called the Matter Transport Effect. It is a function of the
instantaneous distance between B and A but in line with the Aether velocity
of the reference IRF A. In practice it is the difference in dx between two
observations which is of greater significance.
However if dx is zero, as it is at the final reading of the Twins Paradox class
of experiments, then a real prediction is produced directly from eqn.7.
The Matter Transport Effect can be seen to be the time taken for light to
traverse distance dx times the Aether velocity of the reference IRF. When a
clock is moved between two points, ie Slow Transportation, the difference in
traverse time from the expectation is the Matter Transport effect.
If two readings are taken of a clock over a period then the first reading of
this function is subtracted from the second reading. In that case the Matter
Transport Effect is a function of the difference in distance dx.
THE COMMUNICATION EFFECT (ACE)
The observation of real effects upon bodies by an observer body is dependant
on the process of observation over a separation distance and at a communication velocity which is ideally the speed of light. Allowance must be made
for the time delay for light to travel between the two bodies at the assumed
speed of light. However the time of reflection from the observed body is not
equal to tm = (τ0 + τ2)/2. The difference is given by eqn.7 in the form:-
τr − τm = −γevx/c2
From eqn.4 ξ = γex when t is zero. This assumption can be made as the
communication is not dependant on the relative velocity of the bodies involved but merely on the instantaneous separation distance at the point of
reflection. Thus the above equation becomes:-
τr − τm = tACE = −vξ/c2
Eqn. 15 is the Aether Communication effect for an observer in
The sign of ACE depends upon whether the communication is reading or
setting the clock.
From now on the more usual co-ordinates of x, y, z and t are employed to
describe frame k, the refence IRF.
Now dx = TAVx and d = TAV .
tACE = TAVxVA/c2
The ratio of the observed time period T when reading the moving clock to
the observers clock reading (ignoring temporarily all other effects) is
= 1 + VxVA/c2
As the observer is unaware of ACE he must conclude that all differences in
the observed time period are due to a difference between the time units of
the two clocks. He therefore concludes that
= 1 + VxVA/c2
Where tA and tB are the time units of his own clock A and the observed clock
ACE modifies all measurements of real effects made over non-zero distance.
A measure of the delay times must be undertaken for every interrogation of
the distant clock.
THE COMBINATION OF THE REAL AND COMMUNICATION
The combination of the Real and the Communication effects are given in the
Equation 11 for the real effect is combined with eqn. 17, the communication
effect, to give simply
1 − V2/c
The Real Effect eqn.13 and the Aether Communication effect eqn. 15 are
TA − TB = dV/2c
2 + VAdp/c2 − VAdp/c2 = dV/2c2
The Matter Transport Effect and ACE always exactly cancel each other under all conditions of observing a matter body.
Thus a totally real result always arises when an observed clock is
read irrespective of its location relative to the observer.
If the constant velocity V is replaced with a variable function of V then we
(TA − TB) = 1
f(V )δd (20)
Thus the observed clock may be accelerating to any degree, direction or duration within the period of the observation.
If the observer A is accelerating then its time dilation can be equally calculated, relative to a chosen IRF, over the same observation period and subtracted from that of clock B in order to obtain the difference.
Thus within the ATVE there is total freedom for either the observed or the observer clock to accelerate.
OBSERVATION OF THE REFERENCE FRAME FROM AN ACCELERATING BODY.
The ACE of the accelerating clock B is −TBVBVpB/c2
From eqn. 5 this can be converted to velocities through IRF A thus:-
tACE = TB(V
2 + VAVpA)/c2
tACE = dV 2
/c2 + dpAVA/c2
The combination of eqn.15 and eqn. 8 gives the observation of an accelerating clock B upon a clock in IRF A as:-
TA − TB = −dV 2
Being the observation of B upon A it is the inverse of what A sees of B,
which is to be expected.
The varying velocity of B in IRF A can be calculated from the measured
acceleration. For example if B moves in a circle where the instantaneous
velocity is always V then T V 2/c2 becomes T.acc.R/c2 where R is the radius
of the circle.
THE DINGLE PARADOX EXPLAINED
As relative velocity is identical for two bodies moving with respect to each
other the observed velocity effects are also identical as predicted both by the
ATVE and SR. If the two bodies are clocks observing time dilation in the
other they will therefore both observe the other clock to be running slow. In
reality it is not possible for two clocks to both run slow relative to each other.
Several SR explanations of this paradox have been submitted but none have
been judged to be satisfactory.
The ATVE explanation is more easily understood if the situation is simplified
Assume clock A and clock B have Aether velocities VA and VB respectively
and that the two velocities are in line with the two clocks also separated by
a certain distance along the same line. The two Aether velocities are both
small fractions of c such that powers of c above two can be ignored. These
simplifications do not substantially affect the argument.
The time dilation suffered by each clock causes the measure of the time between two events to be less than that measured by a clock stationary in the
Aether. The fractional diminution is given by V
2 and V
according to eqn.2. Each clock will observe the difference between these two
real effects in the absence of the observation effect ACE.
The observation effect ACE is given as VxVN /c2 where N is either A or B
according to the observer, where Vx = Vr = (VB − VA).
Thus the diminution observed as a fraction of a time period by clock A is:-
(TA − TB)/TA = [V
B − V
A − 2VrVA]/2c
For B as the observer the suffixes A and B are interchanged.
The above equation reduces to V
for both A and B as the observer as
The ratio of the real effects and the observation effect is given by:-
(VA + VB)/2VA
At the extremes if VA is zero then A observes only a real effect of clock B,
where-as clock B observes an observation effect which is twice the observed
real effect and of opposite sign. Thus velocity effect observations are a mix
of real and observational effects depending on the exact Aether velocities involved. If clock A observes a real effect greater than the observation effect
then clock B observes the opposite.
THE TWINS PARADOX
The essence of the twins paradox (TP) is that two identical clocks meet and
then take different routes through Space, one route being longer than the
other, to a second meeting. The two clocks then compare their measure of
the time period between the two meetings. Because one clock travels further
than the other it therefore does so at a higher average velocity which subjects
that clock to time dilation relative to the other clock. It is necessary that at
least one clock changes velocity during the experiment.
In the simplest version of the TP clock A moves at constant velocity. Clock
B leaves A after synchronisation, at a constant relative velocity V . At a
certain distance d clock B accelerates in the direction of A up to a constant
velocity V in the direction of A. Clocks A and B compare readings at their
final co-incidence over zero distance.
Both SR and the ATVE agree on the predictions of clock A of the reading of
clock B but they do not agree on the reading of clock A as seen by clock B.
With SR both A and B predict that the other clock will be relatively slow,
which is of course not possible. This prediction results from the fact that
velocity within SR is purely relative rather than absolute. Thus observations
between IRFs are equally reciprocal. In the ATVE velocities are absolute
and so absolute differences in time do occur.
According to the ATVE clock B will be slow relative to clock A by V d/c2
ignoring the period of acceleration where the relative velocity is less than V
for a short period. Clock B must recognise that it has accelerated in order to
make this prediction. The direction of clock B relative to a line between A
and B is not material as neither is the constancy of V through the reference
IRF. Eqn 13 calculates the total time dilation. If the observer A is also accelerating as is an observer on Earth then his time dilation can be calculated
separately by the same equation and the difference taken.
THE REASONS WHY SPECIAL RELATIVITY IS AN UNSATISFACTORY THEORY
Special relativity is based upon the Principle of Special relativity which
A frame in uniform translatory motion relative to an inertial frame cannot
be distinguished from that frame by any physical experiment whatsoever.
From this principle Einstein derived two postulates :-
By: R.F. Norgan (June 2004)
The Aether Theory of Gravity (ATG) is based upon Space being a substantial
Aether which determines the local speed of light at all points, together with
certain elements of the General Theory of Relativity (GTR). The ATG is a
scalar theory where the gravitational potential is the difference between the
speed of light at an infinite distance from matter and the local speed of light.
The acceleration of light in a gravitational field is shown to be caused by
refraction due to the local gradient of the speed of light. The theory predicts
the bending of a transverse light ray, the non-Euclidean nature of Space, the
gravitational red-shift and the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, all in
agreement with observations.
The GTR, a competing theory, is based upon the Einstein (or Strong) Equivalence Principle (EEP) which is demonstrated to be false. The GTR is also
implausible as it requires one geometry of Space-Time to explain the paths
of photons and a second geometry to explain the paths of matter. The GTR
also possesses the weakness that although it predicts the paths of light and
matter it fails to explain how these particles are constrained to follow these
The ATG requires a hypothesis for the construction of fundamental mass
THE BASIS OF THE ATG
Although based upon the unsound hypothesis of Space-Time which in turn
rested upon the false principle, the EEP (examined later), the GTR predicted that Space was non-Euclidean in that the Space units of distance and
time were not constants. However the GTR predictions incorrectly predict
a variation in these units over direction. The ATG postulates the following
equations which are independent of direction.
dr = d
tr = t
tr is the time to propagate e/m potentials across a Space distance unit dr. d
and t are the physical units of distance and time inherent in the Aether but
at an infinite distance from matter (r = ∞). dr and tr are the local units of
distance and time at distance r (the co-ordinate distance) from the centre of
a gravitating body.
The factor m is the gravitational radius of the body and equals GM/c2
co-ordinate distance unit is a theoretical distance unit equal to d but applied
As the local speed of light cr is given by dr/tr it follows that
cr = dr/tr = d/t
∴ cr = c
Consequently the speed of light is not a constant although the local speed
of light cr will everywhere equal 2.998 × 108m/s in terms of local units of
distance and time. Equations 1, 2 and 3 demonstrate that Space is nonEuclidean in nature.
A NOTE ON VARIOUS DISTANCE UNITS
Some possible distance units are:-
δθ = δS/x =
δrx sin θδt/x =
δr sin θδt
∴ δθ/δt =
δr sin θ
δd . (5)
As acceleration equals vdθ/dt generally, then the acceleration of the light ray
in a direction at right angles to its path is given by
acc = c sin θδc/δr . (6)
The acceleration down the speed of light gradient is given by
accr = c sin2
θδc/δr . (7)
So a speed of light gradient causes the acceleration of a light ray crossing
the gradient, down the gradient, which is the classical expectation for the
gravitational effect upon matter.
The degree of acceleration is a function of the angle θ which the ray makes
with the gradient. Maximum acceleration occurs at 90◦
. When the ray
moves in line with the gradient (θ = 0) it actually decelerates moving down
the gradient and vice versa.
Substituting eqn. 4 into eqn. 6 with θ = 90◦ gives
accr = 2mc2
/r2 = 2GM/r2
Therefore light accelerates at twice the rate of matter at the same point in
REFRACTION IS THE ESSENCE OF GRAVITY
THE EINSTEIN OR STRONG EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE
The GTR is based upon the truth of the Strong Equivalence Principle (SEP).
The SEP states that:-
when the acceleration is at right angles to the path of the ray we have
x FIG A2
From fig A2 if δx ≪ δd then δθ = δx/δd.
An acceleration in the x direction is given by δx/δt2
Also δt = δd/c therefore
δθ = accxδd/c .
From fig A1 accX = accRRS/R
∴ δθ = accR
δd . (A1)
According to the inverse square law
accR = accRS
∴ δθ = accRS
From fig A1
S + d
∴ θ =
S + d
∴ θ =
From eqn. 8 for accr θ =
As m = 1.47km and Rs = 697 × 103km then θ = 0.88 arc secs.
The total deflection from infinity to infinity is twice the above at 1.76 arc
secs. As neither the star or the Earth are at infinity the deflection calculates
to be 1.75 arc secs which is the amount observed.
A MEASURE OF INCREASED DISTANCE WHEN THE SUN
IS CLOSE TO THE LINE OF MEASURE
The distance from Earth to an object (planet or space-craft) on the opposite
side of the Sun is measured by the radar method, first with the Sun close to
the radar path and then distant from the path. The difference is predicted
and then compared with measurement.
The radar signal just grazes the Sun such that at point S, R = Rs.
The local speed of light cR = c
where R =
s + d
∴ δd/c =
s + d
δt . (1B)
2 + t
∴ tS =
tS is the time for a light ray to cover the distance dE or dB with the sun
present while t is the time when the sun is absent. T is the time for a light
ray to pass from S to either point B or E. In the case of the Earth (E),
T = 500µS.
The factor RS/c = 2.32s.
∴ tS = t −
ln 1 − ln 1000
The right hand side of eqn. 1 is the gravitational force and the left hand side
effectively describes the acceleration of Mercury towards the Sun in terms of
the rate of bending of its path in order to describe an orbit of radius Rr. Rr
and r are normally considered to be identical but in this case they are not.
Rr is the effective radius, ie. the orbit length divided by 2π , but in distance
units relevant to radius r.
vr can equally be given in terms of a fraction A of the speed of light cr. m is
the gravitating radius of the Sun and is 1.47km.
From eqns. 1 and 3 and the discussion above we have
When r is large relative to m which is the case in the solar system we have
Therefore the effective radius of the orbit is r
1 + 3m
The orbit length therefore exceeds the nominal orbit length of 2πr by 6πm
or 27.7km in the solar system irrespective of orbit radius however large or
small (not for r < approx 4m). In angular terms this is 6πm/r radians.
For Mercury, r is 58 × 106 km hence the precession is 0.0985 arc secs /orbit
or 41 arc secs per century. This accounts for the anomaly within the limit of
Most explanations of this phenomenum are exceedingly and unnecessarily
more complex than the above explanation.
When r = 3m the orbit length will be infinitely longer than the nominal orbit
of 2π . Hence r = 3m is a limiting radius for orbits.
THE ACTION OF A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD ON MATTER
Equations 1 and 2 explain the behaviour of light in a gravitational field
through the effect of refraction but they do not explain the behaviour of
The competing theory, the GTR, explains the paths taken by light and matter
through a gravitational field as geodesics moving through curved Space-time.
The metric equation giving the geometry of Space-time (for a two dimensional
plane only) is
r − 2m
r − 2m
dr2 − r
The geometry of Space-time described in eqn. 8 applies to matter but for
light a different geometry is used where dS = 0. In other words the GTR
states that there is one Space-Time for matter and a different Space–Time for
light. It is highly implausible that the geometry of Space-Time could modify
itself according to which type of particle is moving through at a particular
A scalar field of the local speed of light cr perfectly accounts for the known
gravitational phenomena of light and so it is reasonable to expect it to also
account for the gravitational effects observed of matter. The difference in
the two effects can only then be accounted for by the differing construction
of photons and fundamental matter particles and their different re-actions to
the gravitational field.
As the construction of a fundamental mass particle is not known the ATG
cannot be a complete theory. However a theory which requires a hypothesis
which may be correct is surely preferable to a theory which is definitely incorrect.
The predictions of the GTR for the paths of light and matter through Space
agree with the predictions of the ATG except in the vicinity of a Black Hole.
However the GTR has no explanation as to how objects are constrained to
follow these predicted paths. This requirement is a philosophical question
which needs much consideration for Mach’s explanation is untenable.
On the other hand the ATG proposes that Space is a substantial Aether and
all objects in Space are in contact with and indeed are effects of their local
Aether. Thus the path of photons and matter particles are determined precisely by the local Aether which causes the original path of these particles
to be continued but with a modification resulting from the local gradients of
the speed of light and electro-magnetic potentials.
A HYPOTHESIS OF A POSSIBLE CONSTRUCTION OF MATTER
The detailed construction of fundamental matter particles is not known and
may never be known. This section merely describes possible constructions
based upon certain known facts.
Under suitable conditions matter can transform into energy ie. Photons and
vice versa, according to the equation E = mc2
Instead of the e/m waves of a photon converting into an entirely different
substance called matter it is more likely that the e/m waves merely take on
a different geometry.
Electric and magnetic fields exhibit the phenomena that we consider particular to matter ie. inertia and kinetic energy. For example the energy within a
unit volume electric field is kE2/8π and in a magnetic field µH2/8π. There is
therefore no need for a special matter substance to exhibit these parameters.
The upper limit of matter velocity is precisely the velocity of electro-magnetic
waves. How is it that a special matter substance be limited by the velocity of a completely different substance, photons, unless matter and photons
were both constructed of electro-magnetic waves. This paper therefore postulates that fundamental matter units are constructed of electro-magnetic
waves moving in a three dimensional vortex of minute dimensions.
THE E/M VORTEX OF A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD
It follows from the effect of a gravitational field upon a photon that the path
of the e/m waves in a vortex will also be bent, depending on their angle of
incidence to the speed of light gradient.
An e/m vortex stationery in the Aether must be symmetrical in all directions.
It is therefore assumed that the vortex can be broken down into a set of two
dimensional circular paths where the plane of the circular path takes all angles over time, to any particular direction in Space. The more simple action
of a speed of light gradient upon an e/m circular path can then be considered.
When the plane of the e/m ring is at 90◦
to the speed of light gradient the
e/m wave path will be bent continuously in a direction down the gradient
according to eqn. 5. The e/m ring as an entity will accelerate down the
speed of light gradient. On the other hand, an e/m ring whose plan is at 0◦
to the speed of light gradient will be affected differently. Any bending caused
when the e/m waves move with a component at 90 to the gradient will be
lost when the waves move parallel to the gradient. Hence although the e/m
ring is slightly distorted the distortion does not build up over time and no
acceleration is generated.
In practice the e/m rings exist at all angles to the speed of light gradient but
when broken down into components, the component at 90◦
to the gradient
must be equally as common as the component at 0◦
to the gradient. Hence
for one half the time the vortex is subject to an acceleration down the gradient and for the other half it is not. This may explain why light accelerates
at twice the rate of matter.
It is known that the exposure of matter to a gravitational field causes an
acceleration of that matter. In other words, after an exposure of a finite
time the material object is given a certain velocity in the direction of the
field in addition to any velocity possessed prior to the time period. If the
gravitational field could be theoretically switched off at the end of the period
the induced velocity would continue for ever.
From the previous consideration of the possible structure of the vortex and
the accelerating effect of a speed of light gradient upon the e/m rings it
would appear that the gradient causes a distortion of the geometry of the
vortex which then causes the vortex to ’screw’ a path through the Aether at
a velocity which is a function of the degree of screw times the speed of light.
The degree of screw is permanent, (one aspect of inertia), until changed by
a further exposure to an accelerating field.
From this postulate of the construction of matter it follows that
In the unusual case where a nearby galaxy is found to give a negative redshift
ie. a blue shift, the relative velocity is negative and the galaxy is approaching
In 1929 Edwin Hubble came to an important conclusion based upon the
measured redshift of many galaxies. He found that the further away the
galaxy the greater the redshift and hence the greater the recession velocity.
The relationship is described by the following equation.
cZ = H0d .
Where H0 is the value of Hubbles constant H at the present time (assuming
that H is a function of time). The value of H0 has not yet been accurately
determined but is approximately 75km/s per mega-parsec (one parsec is 3.26
Naturally cosmologists sought an explanation for this general expansion of
the universe. George Gamow and others suggested that the expansion started
from a single point in Space and time several billions of years ago. Prior to
that event neither matter, energy, distance or time existed but that at the
event the entire matter and energy of today’s universe was created in an instant. From that single point of zero dimensions the universe has continued
to expand and develop. Gamow’s hypothesis is commonly known as the Big
Bang explanation, or BB theory for short. However the name Big Bang does
not give an accurate picture of Gamow’s hypothesis. In his description there
is no bang as such for there never was a high central pressure in the universe
to accelerate matter through Space. Instead, the expansion is one of Space
itself, with matter and energy embedded in it.
According to the theory all points in Space remain the same relative distances
apart. What changes is a universal scale factor R, which is continuously increasing. This scale factor modifies the value of all distance. For example,
if in a certain time the scale factor increases by say 10% then the distance
between any and every two points in Space, whether one micron apart or
one billion light years apart, will increase by 10%. The longer the distance
the greater the absolute increment hence the greater the separation velocity
between the two points. Hence Gamow’s hypothesis seemed to fit Hubbles
THE DIFFICULTIES OF THE BIG BANG THEORY
However there are several obvious problems with the BB theory. For instance,
how could the entire matter/energy of the universe be created from nothing.
Also, how could time and distance be created and should not these dimensions always exist. Furthermore, what exists beyond the boundary of the
expanding universe and so exactly what does the universe expand into. All
these questions are unanswerable and refer to seemingly impossible processes
and circumstances pointing to the invalidity of the BB theory. However it
must be realised that these or similar difficult questions can be asked of any
theory of the creation of the universe. For example, an alternative hypothesis
of a universe of infinite age and dimensions has no start event or boundary
problem but infinite time and infinite distance with no boundaries are equally
impossible to imagine. Consequently this type of criticism is not specific to
the BB theory.
Nevertheless there are numerous criticisms of the BB theory which are specific to that theory alone. For example immediately after the point of creation
but prior to any expansion, the distance dimensions of the universe would
necessarily be zero. Assuming that the energy created was in the form of
e/m waves these waves must be of a certain finite length, however short.
And yet, at point zero, length did not exist and so energy could not exist.
If, alternatively, the universe was created over a finite volume possessing distance dimensions at the very start, then how could the mass/energy creation
event occur simultaneously at all points of a finite volume. A means of synchronisation at an infinite velocity would have been required but we have no
knowledge of a possible mechanism to achieve that end.
A further difficulty lies in the essence of expansion. What exactly is the
substance of Space that it possesses the ability to expand for it is not logical
that ’nothing’ can expand, for a multiple of nothing is still nothing. The
BB theory does not give any description of or give substance to Space, the
expansion of which is the very basis of the BB theory.
THE MECHANISM OF COSMIC EXPANSION
Accepting without further question that Space does expand, consider now
the explanation given by the BB theory of the mechanism that controls and
determines the rate of expansion. Although the BB theory accepts that the
observed expansion is one of Space, nevertheless it maintains that the expansion is determined by the kinetic energy of matter embedded in Space,
notwithstanding that in the early stages of the universe matter did not yet
exist. If matter is merely passively embedded in an expanding Space why
then should it have any effect upon the mechanism of expansion. It appears
that this explanation of the BB theory stems partly from the Space Expansion Theory and partly from a traditional big bang where matter is forcibly
accelerated through Space by a central excess of pressure. Hence the BB theory combines aspects of two entirely different mechanisms in its explanation
of cosmic expansion.
THE FRIEDMANN EQUATION
The above explanation of cosmic expansion is embodied in the famous Friedmann equation which is at the heart of the BB theory. Friedmann accepts
that the expansion velocity is determined by the inertia of matter, ie. the
expansion velocity is kinetic in nature. This is clear from the fact that in
his model the expansion velocity is modified by the deceleration caused by a
universal gravitational field as well as his assumption that cosmic expansion
velocity creates kinetic energy. He gives the total energy of the universe as:-
TOTAL ENERGY = KINETIC ENERGY + POTENTIAL GRAVITATIONAL ENERGY .
Friedmann’s universal gravitational field decelerates the expanding matter
towards a central point and depending upon the matter density of the universe gravity will or will not eventually overcome the current kinetic energy.
If not, then the universe will expand for ever but if overcome then the outward velocity of matter will reverse until all matter will eventually meet
back at the central point in an event termed the Big Crunch. (the proponents of the BB theory deny the existence of a central point but if one does
not exist then in which direction does a universal gravitational field operate).
It is difficult to understand how Friedmann’s centrally directing universal
gravitation field can exist, for a universe which is accepted to be both isotropic
and homogenous cannot by definition exhibit a gravitational potential difference on a large scale.
The Friedmann equation is absolutely central to the BB theory for it generates predictions for both the age and the size of the universe as well as
the rate of cosmic expansion. Furthermore it predicts the proper distance to
distant galaxies according to their redshift.
Hence dp = 2HL
1 − √
Where HL = c/H0 and is called the Hubble length.
It can be seen that proper distance is not a linear function of redshift which
is surely rather strange.
THE RATE OF EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE (BB THEORY)
If H0 is taken to be 50km/s per mega parsec then according to BB theory
the radius of the universe is 39 × 109
light years and its age is 13 × 109 years.
Consequently the average expansion velocity of galaxies at the ’edge’ of the
universe is three times the speed of light. The further back one goes in time
the more rapid is the expansion. For example, when the universe was only 1
light year old the rate of expansion was 4700 times the speed of light and at
an age of one second it was 740, 000 c. During the period of ’inflation’, an
attempt to overcome a serious flaw in the BB theory, the rate of expansion
was an astonishing 3 × 1041 times the speed of light.
It is obvious from these extreme velocities that they cannot be trans-Aether
velocities limited to the speed of light and so it follows that neither can they
be kinetic velocities which cause kinetic energy. If cosmic expansion velocities
are not kinetic then the Friedmann equation is wrong and it follows that the
BB theory which predicts these fantasy velocities must also be wrong.
THE AETHER THEORY OF COSMIC EXPANSION (ATCE)
∴ SP =
SLpHL/c − 1
Therefore substituting from eqn. 7
SP = cZ/HL . (8)
And from eqn. 4
× HL = cZ . (9)
Equation 8 is Hubbles equation and equation 9 is a derived form of Hubbles
equation. In BB theory neither equation is linear with Z with considerable
variation for high values of Z where-as eqns. 8 and 9 above are always linear
irrespective of the value of Z.
Because the relative magnitude of a star is a function of its proper distance
SP equation 8 gives a linear relationship between relative magnitude and log
redshift. However two effects separate to cosmic expansion diminish light
intensity at high redshifts. The first effect is due to the loss of energy of each
photon directly due to the redshift (E = he/λ) and the second effect arises
from the cosmic expansion velocity as less photons are received per second
than are transmitted. The combined effect is to diminish the light flux received and hence increase the observed magnitude by the factor 5 log (1 + Z).
THE DETERMINATION OF HL
Cosmologists measure the distance to a galaxy or star by various means.
They also measure the redshift Z. From eqn. 9, which is equally true for
cosmic expansion velocity as it is for trans-Aether velocity (The Doppler
equation is identical to eqn. 9 for low velocities) they determine the total
recession or radial velocity. Where the recession velocity deviates from that
predicted from Hubbles Law (eqn. 8) the difference is considered to be the
radial component of the trans-Aether velocity or ’peculiar’ velocity, as it is
termed by cosmologists. The direction of the trans-Aether velocity is random relative to the direction to Earth and hence there is also a transverse
component of the peculiar velocity which naturally does not contribute to
observed redshift. Peculiar or trans-Aether velocities are generally less than
1000 km/s (3.3 × 10−3
c) and so do not seriously modify redshifts in excess
of Z = 0.03.
After the removal of the random trans-Aether velocity component the remaining velocity is the Hubble Flow velocity and it can be seen that this is
the Cosmic expansion velocity given by eqn. 4.
There is as yet no universal agreement for the value of H. However it is
expected to be within 50 − 100 km/s per mega-parsec. In future discussion
I use the mid point value of 75 km/s per mega parsec.
H0 = HL = 75km/s per mega parsec
= 23km/s per mega light year
= 3 × 105
km/s per 13 × 109
= 1 part in 13 billion per year
∴ HV = 3HL = 1 part in 4.3 billion per year
IMPLICATIONS FOR OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE UNIVERSE
According to the postulates a given volume of Space doubles every 3 × 109
years. If the volume of the universe is infinite then accordingly it will remain
infinite for any time in the future or the past. If however the universe is finite
then its volume will double every 3 × 109 years forward in time and halve for
the same period backwards in time. Consequently the volume of the universe
was never zero back in time under either scenario. Therefore according to this
theory (ATCE) the universe did not have a starting point and is infinitely old.
At the current date redshifts have been observed in excess of 5 eg. Z = 5.6.
From eqn. 8 this implies a universe of radius at least 72.8 × 109
(assuming that the observed redshift is entirely due to cosmic expansion).
The ATCE is a theory about Space (the Aether) and is not concerned with
matter or energy other than as a means of investigating Space. The following
comments on matter and energy are entirely speculative.
As Space volume is continuously being created this implies a diminuation in
matter density if new matter is not being created. This in turn implies that
the density of matter was infinite an infinite time ago. This would appear
to be an unlikely scenario. The only alternative is that matter is also being
continuously created, probably at a similar rate to the creation of Space such
that matter densities remain substantially constant over time. Possibly the
creation of matter is somehow a by product of the creation of Space.
It is accepted that the variation in the Aether distance and time units which
are the essence of a gravitational field is an entirely separate Aether effect to
the second postulate of this theory.
By R.F. Norgan Oct 2004
THE HUMAN CONCEPT
Our human concept of time is one of a universal dimension that controls the
rate of change and movement of every material object. Furthermore we expect the rate of passage of time to be constant everywhere in the universe even
though we have no way of knowing whether it is or not. We also expect that
a particular instant in time occurs simultaneously everywhere in the universe.
Science, in the guise of Albert Einstein disabused us of this last notion. If
suddenly the Sun stopped radiating light we would not know about the event
until 8.3secs later as it takes that long for light to reach Earth. In fact, we
come to know of all events in the universe through their emitted light or
other electro-magnetic radiation. That knowledge is delayed by the duration of transmission of the speed of light over the intervening distance. This
delay may be as great as tens of billions of years. One event may be the
emission of a photon by a far distant galaxy and another event the collision
of that photon with Earth. The two events are separate even though one
causes the other. It is possible with a knowledge of the intervening distance
between the two events to calculate the separation of these events on an artificial universal time basis but this is of no practical importance compared
to the fact of the two events. Universal simultaneity is a meaningless concept.
MOTION IS THE ESSENCE OF TIME
Time is manifested in an infinite variety of ways, eg through the obvious
movement of material objects such as motor cars, aeroplanes, ships, clouds,
birds and animals etc, but also through what humans call ’change’. Change
occurs in the growth and decay of living organisms such as plants and animals.
It is characterised as a very slow and often unseen movement of material deep
within the body of the organism. Change also occurs in features of the landscape such as the course of rivers, the height and shape of mountains, the
coastline and, even less perceptible, the drift of continents. The cause of landscape change is once again the slow and mostly hidden movement of material.
The one common factor in all these examples is the movement of material,
albeit at a great variety of velocities from near zero to just below the speed
of light. Light itself moves at 2.998×108 m/s although we tend to think that
such an extreme movement relative to our everyday observations is instantaneous. The discussion above has now simplified the action of time somewhat
to the general movement of material and energy. Nevertheless such a great
variety of possible velocities does not immediately point to a mechanism by
which time controls these different velocities.
UNITS OF TIME
It is convenient for humans to separate the steady ’flow’ of time into arbitrary but constant length ’chunks’ which we call time units. The first time
unit chosen was the ’day’, the time for a single rotation of the Earth. The
end of the day and the beginning of the next could be readily ascertained
by an astronomical observation of the stars or the Sun. Until the end of the
19th Century we knew of no time source more constant and reliable than the
rotation of the Earth and the day time unit became our standard for thousands of years.
A time unit of one day was rather inconvenient for human beings who practiced many different operations during the course of a day such as sleeping,
eating, working etc. The day time unit was therefore subdivided into 24
parts (hours) which were then further subdivided into 60 parts (minutes)
and further still into another 60 parts (seconds). In the physics laboratory
the second eventually became the time unit standard as it could be generated more conveniently, and more importantly, with greater stability than
the revolution of the Earth.
Instead the second was generated directly from the swing of a pendulum, the
oscillation of a balance wheel , more recently from the vibration of a minute
quartz tuning fork and even more accurately from the vibration of Caesium
atoms. The essential requirement of all time unit generators (TUGs) is that
each time unit is an exact replica of all others ie. the generator rotates or
oscillates in an identical manner. This requirement provides a constancy of
the time unit length over long time periods and varying ambient conditions.
Although all practical TUGs oscillate or rotate this is not an essential requirement. For example, if an object moved at a constant velocity the distance
along its path could be marked out in equal distances such that each time
the object passed a distance marker it would indicate the end of one time
unit and the start of the next. One of the great practical disadvantages being
that eventually the moving object passes beyond our limits of observation.
It should be noted that arbitrary distance markers are not essential as with
an object moving at a constant velocity the analogue distance moved by the
object relates directly to the time passed. It will be seen that this particular point achieves a greater significance later. The other practical difficulty
of such a clock lies in choosing a moving object with exactly constant velocity.
THE PHOTON CLOCK
The most constant velocity possible is the movement of a light ray. This velocity is a universal constant ie. it has exactly the same value, 2.998×108m/s,
at all points in Space. It is obviously not possible to construct a linear ie.
non oscillating clock, using a light ray as in one second the light ray would
have moved 300, 000 km away from the observer. Instead an oscillating TUG
can be constructed with two perfectly reflecting mirrors exactly facing each
other and separated by a matter rod of a constant but arbitrary length ’l’ .
A light pulse is introduced between the two mirrors such that it reflects back
and forth along the same track, in theory for ever. The boundary between
time units is the reflection of the light pulse from a chosen mirror and the
length of the time unit is given by 2l/c. A clock of this construction is called
a Photon Clock. As real mirrors are not perfect the light pulse eventually
diminishes in intensity but nevertheless the photon clock does operate in
practice for some time although, perhaps, its major use is as a theoretical
device in thought experiments.
The photon clock is the most perfect TUG possible as long as the matter rod
length remains unaffected by changes in ambient conditions.
VELOCITY EFFECTS ON THE TIME UNIT
However there is one factor which does modify the photon clock time unit
and equally affects all other forms of clock and matter systems . That factor
is velocity through the Aether.
The velocity of the Earth through the Aether is believed to be 360 km/s and
this velocity causes time to run slower on Earth by a factor of nearly one part
in a million relative to a planet which is stationary in the Aether (see the
PDF paper on Velocity Effects). The mechanism of the velocity effect upon
a photon clock is extremely instructive with regard to an understanding of
the nature of time.
The mechanism operates in two different ways dependent upon the orientation of the path of the internal light ray either at 0◦ or at 90◦
to the Aether
velocity of the clock. Figure 1 describes the path of the light ray when the
orientation is 90◦
. The light pulse initially leaves mirror 1 at Space point A
It can be seen that Eqn. 2 is different from eqn. 1 by the factor p
1 − V
But an additional factor, the Fitzgerald Lorentz (F-L) contraction effect
comes in to play when the orientation of the separating matter rod is at
to its Aether velocity. The F-L effect states that all matter contracts
in the direction of its Aether velocity by the factor p
1 − V
l = l0
1 − V
. Eqn. 2 then becomes
Hence the time unit is affected equally in either orientation. As any unknown
angle of orientation can always be broken down into components at 0◦ and
at 90◦ and as the effect is identical for either component then the effect is
identical for any angle of orientation of the photon clock. In fact the time
dilation effect applies equally to all matter objects or matter systems however
large or small.
The nature of time for matter systems is encapsulated by the path taken by
a light ray within a photon clock.
TIME AT THE AETHER LEVEL
We must assume that most matter systems are moving through the Aether
at various velocities and consequently their time unit is affected by that velocity as described in the previous paragraph. But now take a photon clock
which is stationary within the Aether. The orientation of a stationary clock
is entirely immaterial as there is no Aether velocity against which orientation
can be measured.
Also, consequent of the zero Aether velocity there is no F-L contraction effect and so the distance traversed by the light pulse over a single time unit
is always 2l. Furthermore the time duration is l/c in either direction of the
light pulse between the two mirrors. In fact, if instead we measure distance
in Space via some theoretical means then there is no need for the photon
clock (which represents a matter system) to determine a unit distance. Time
relative to the Aether can be directly measured by the analogue distance
travelled through the Aether by a light ray. It might even be said that a
separate time dimension does not and need not exist and this would be true
but for the existence of matter.
MATTER IS A PROBLEM
The difficulty of matter is that it does not travel at the speed of light. The
non-equal velocities of photons and matter particles indicate that the time
dimension mechanism of the universe which controls the different rates of
these velocities must lie within a far deeper aspect of the Universe than either energy or matter. However in my paper on the Aether Theory of Gravity (ATG), I postulate that fundamental particles (FMP’s) are constructed
of electro-magnetic waves, just as are photons, except that they move in a
minute spherical geometry. Hence, although this e/m vortex, as an entity,
may be stationary in the Aether, the electro-magnetic wave constituents of
the vortex are all moving at the speed of light. Therefore at the Aether level,
the electro-magnetic constituents of both matter and photons all move at one
identical speed, the speed of light. It then follows that the assumption made
in the previous section was correct; that there is no separate Time dimension
and time instead is given by the distance moved through Space by e/m waves
eg. a light ray.
But there remains the problem of exactly which distance is the analogue of
DISTANCE IN SPACE
It is seen in my paper, the Aether Theory of Gravity, that there are several
possible types of distance.
The most fundamental unit of distance is co-ordinate distance r where the
unit distance is determined by a sub -Aether, a more fundamental physical
substance than the Aether. The variable size of Aethons, the distance unit
of the Aether, is determined in distance units of the sub-Aether.
Photon distance is determined not only by the Aethon distance unit dr but
also by the Aethon time tr unit as the two together determine the local speed
cr = dr
tr = c∞
Where m is the gravitating radius of a source mass and r is the distance in
co-ordinate units from its centre.
As we have determined that Time is the distance moved by a light ray then
that distance is naturally ’photon distance’. The photon distance may be
calculated theoretically and expressed in terms of the co-ordinate distance,
but it is photon distances alone which determine whether events occur or not
within our world of matter and energy.
If two photons, A and B, temporarily occupy the same point in Space and
then at a later time occupy the same but different point in Space then it
follows that the two photons must have traveled identical photon distances
between these two co-incidences notwithstanding that the two paths were
different and at least one path must have been bent to one degree or another.
If the path of photon A was known to pass through Space where the gravitational field was weak and the path of photon B was known to pass through
Space where the gravitational field was very strong then the co-ordinate distances and even the Aethon distances traveled by the two photons would be
very different notwithstanding that the photon distances were equal. But
from the point of view of the meeting and interaction of particles and hence
for the history and the future of the Universe it is photon distances that
TIME AT THE SUB- AETHER LEVEL
The electric and magnetic potentials residing in an Aethon are passed on to
contiguous Aethons after a time delay which is a unit time interval at the
level of the Aether but is a variable time at the level of the sub-Aether. As
the Aethon distance unit diminishes with increasing proximity to a mass,
then the Aethon time unit increases in an inverse relationship.
dr = d
, tr = t
Hence time exists at the Aethon and sub-Aether level but it does not exist
in the form of a universal time dimension.
Minkowski included Time as a fourth dimension in his geometric models of
Space and it was upon this model that Einstein based his General Theory of
As time is not a dimension it follows that Minkowski Space-Time is a false
geometry of Space. The interval between two points in three dimensional
Space gives the distance between these two points which is an analogue of
the time that would be taken for a light ray to pass from one point to the
other. By including Time as a fourth dimension, albeit with a negative sign,
the interval δS is effectively and incorrectly included twice.
Einstein overcomes the error in the case of the light by putting the interval
δS to zero but kept δS for the case of matter. Thus, in the case of light
δt stands in for the omitted δS and the omission is really one of the time
dimension rather than of the interval. Consequently, Einstein employs two
separate geometries in his GTR, one with a time dimension for the case of
matter and one without a time dimension for the case of light.
Naturally Space cannot possess two separate geometries.
First and foremost, the Aether is the substance of volume. It is the only
substance which is volume as there is no separate matter substance.
Volume (Space) can be separated off into quantities of volume of varying
sizes by means of material or theoretical boundaries. It is therefore possible
to consider in an abstract manner, different quantities of volume, e.g. 1 litre
and 2 litres. If Space (volume) was nothing rather than a substance then 1
litre would necessarily be the same as 2 litres (or indeed a billion litres) as
any multiple of nothing still gives nothing. As we appreciate that 1 litre is
different to 2 litres volume must be a substance, the Aether.
The ancient Greeks applied a certain logic to the variable quantity, gold.
They deduced that gold must consist of variable numbers of identical gold
units which they called atoms and which are the essence of gold. The division of a gold atom does not produce two pieces of gold but parts which
are entirely different from gold. The logic of the Greeks is equally applicable
to any variable quantity of a homogenous substance and so it also applies
to volume. Consequently a quantity of volume must consist of a number of
identical volume units to which I give the name, Aethons. Presumably the
size of an Aethon is extremely small, far smaller than the smallest known
volume of matter. As an Aethon cannot by definition be sub-divided it must
also be the definition of a point in Space. Thus a point in Space possesses
unit volume rather than zero volume as is normally determined.
As the Aether is volume it naturally determines distance in all directions,
the physical unit of distance being the distance between contiguous Aethons.
The distance between any two points in Space (Aethons) is determined by
the position of the two chosen Aethons in the matrix of Aethons which is the
Aether. An analogy might be two chosen but separated iron atoms within a
block of iron. They are forever separated by a certain distance by the iron
atoms in between . The separation distance in the Aether (and in iron) is not
determined by any one path of contiguous Aethons joining the two chosen
points but by each and every possible contiguous path, however convoluted.
The Aethon hypothesis of a natural distance unit in the universe, fanciful
though it might be thought to be, should be compared with the lack of available alternative explanations of distance.
It is not possible for humans or indeed for material objects to detect individual Aethons hence we cannot mark points in Space. Matter ’inhabits’
Aethons only transiently as matter moves through the Aether at various ve1
locities (the Earth possesses an Aether velocity of 360 km/s).
The Hubble redshift is caused by the recession velocity of galaxies, the further
the galaxy the higher the velocity. This effect is the result of the continuous
creation of new Aether. For every given volume of Space a constant fractional amount is newly created over a given time period. For example, over
a period of one year that fraction is one part in 4.3 billion (taking Hubbles
constant to be 75km/s per mega-parsec).
An alternative view is that each Aethon possesses the probability of changing
into two Aethons of 1 in 3 billion per year.
This hypothesis of the Aether predicts a universe of infinite age, a scenario
entirely different to that described by the Big Bang Theory of the creation
of the universe.
POTENTIALS IN THE AETHER
Prior to Einstein’s denial of the existence of the Aether in his Special Theory
of Relativity (STR) it was widely accepted that the electric and magnetic
potentials resided on physical points of the Aether. i.e. upon Aethons,. It
was also accepted that the e/m potentials propagate through the Aether at
the speed of light (3 × 108m/s) determined by the substance of the Aether.
This website demonstrates that Einsteins STR is faulty and hence the above
hypotheses still stand.
It is expected that the propagation velocity of e/m potentials arises from
the unit time taken to pass on e/m potential on an Aethon to its contiguous neighbour unit distance dA away. If this unit time interval is tA then
c = dA/tA. Thus the Aether propagates potentials in a similar, but nevertheless different way, to the way that matter propagates acoustic potentials.
Without the substance of the Aether there is no medium to support or to
propagate the e/m potentials.
Although the velocity of e/m propagation is locally the constant c, when
measured at a distance using units local to the observer (a theoretical measurement only ) the velocity is found to differ. The difference between the
local speed of light at a distance r from a gravitating body relative to the
velocity at r equals infinity is the gravitational potential at that point. At
distance r the Aethon distance unit dr is given by dr = d
r while the
Aethon time unit tr is given by tr = t
. (Where d and t are the
units at r equals infinity and m is the gravitating radius of the mass). Thus
cr = c
and the gravitational potential φ is given by φ = c(cr − c)/2.
Hence gravity is a direct consequence of this non-Euclidean property of the
Aether, the non-Euclidean property being caused by the presence of matter.
(See the Aether theory of gravity, ATG)
According to Newton, matter, when not subject to a force or accelerating
field, moves in a straight line at a constant velocity. This effect is called
Newtons law of inertia appears at first sight to be straight forward and yet
it contains some difficulties. Firstly, the observation of the path and velocity
of the matter particle must be made from a frame of reference which is neither accelerating or rotating, termed an inertial frame of reference (IRF). A
frame of reference fixed to the surface of the Earth is not an IRF as the Earth
rotates both daily and in annual orbit around the Sun. Similarly a frame of
reference fixed to the solar system is unsuitable as the Sun rotates around
the Milky Way. However Newtons law appears to be true when observed
from a frame of reference fixed to distant stars and galaxies.
Ernst Mach evolved the Principle of Inertia in which he proposed that the
path of matter and light was not only a straight line relative to the stars
and galaxies but also that those paths are actually determined by the matter
contained in all the stars and galaxies of the whole universe. However, he
failed to describe a mechanism by which this control was effected and no such
mechanism has been discovered.
It does not take much consideration to realise that the path of a particle
through Space can only be determined through ’contact’ with the substance
of Space through which the particle moves, rather as the path of an acoustic wave is determined through and by a material substance. Thus it is the
Aether as a physical substance which determines the paths of particles which
move through it. Mach was confused by the fact that the distant stars and
galaxies effectively act as markers for the Aether. Most stars and galaxies
move through the Aether at velocities below 1000 km/s and at their great
distances from Earth these low velocities cause an exceedingly small angular
movement through the Aether. Hence the stars and galaxies mark the position of the Aether but their position, path and velocity is equally determined
by the Aether as is any particle of mass or energy.
The earlier section on e/m potentials and their propagation through the
Aether shows that the velocity of light, one aspect of inertia, is determined
by the Aether. The path of a light ray is propagated onwards in the original
direction unless the path crosses a speed of light gradient (non-Euclidean
Aether) in which case the path is bent towards the region of the slower
speed of light. Thus the Aether entirely controls the inertia of light. The
determination of the path and velocity of matter in the Aether is much more
complex, being partly a function of the unknown construction of fundamental
mass particles. A hypothesis of a possible construction is given at the end
of the section on gravity. This hypothesis explains how the inertia of matter
is determined by the Aether in combination with the internal geometry of
fundamental mass particles.